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Births: Anna Brownell Jameson, author, 1794; Robert Smith Surtees, novelist, 1803; Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, astronomer, 1836; Erik Satie (Alfred Erik Leslie-Satie), composer, 1866; Dorothy Miller Richardson, novelist, 1873.

Deaths: Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano dei Filipepi), painter, 1510; Cornelis de Heem, painter, 1695; Catherine I, empress of Russia, 1727; Leopold Auenbrugger von Auenbrugg, physician, 1809; Lydia Estes Pinkham, patent-medicine manufacturer, 1883; Timothy Cole, wood engraver, 1931; Paul Abraham Dukas, composer, 1935; Nigel Marlin Balchin, novelist, 1970; Margaret Hamilton, actress, 1985.

On this day: Frederick the Great, Emperor of Prussia, was victorious against the Austrians at the Battles of Czaslau and Chotusitz, 1742; the Revised Version of the New Testament was issued, 1881; the foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum was laid by Queen Victoria, 1899; Mafeking, under siege by the Boers, was relieved by Colonel Plumer, 1900; the first flight by KLM (Koninklijke-Luchtvaart- Maatschappij) was made, 1920; Chiang Kai-shek was made supreme war lord in Canton, 1926; Germany invaded France, 1940; the US Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, 1954.

Today is the Feast Day of St Bruno of Wurzburg, St Madron or Madern and St Paschal Baylon.