Anniversaries

TODAY

Births: Philipp Jakob Spener, Protestant theologian, 1635; Muzio Clementi, composer, 1752; Stendhal (Henri-Marie Beyle), novelist, 1783; Franz Commer, organist and composer, 1813; Thomas Henry Weist Hill, violinist, 1828; Edouard Manet, impressionistic painter, 1832; Ernst Abbe, physicist and industrialist, 1840; Subhas Chandra Bose, politician, 1897; Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein, film director, 1898.

Deaths: Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, 1002; William Caslon, typefounder, 1766; John Cleland, author of Fanny Hill, 1789; William Pitt the Younger, statesman, 1806; Edward Alexander McDowell, pianist and composer, 1908; John Hoppner, portrait painter, 1810; John Field, pianist and composer, 1837; Sir Francis Burdett Bt, politician, 1844; Julius Charles Hare, archdeacon and scholar, 1855; Eugene-Marin Labiche, playwright and farceur, 1888; Alexandre Cabanel, painter, 1889; William Whiteley, 'The Universal Provider', department-store owner, shot dead 1907; Anna Pavlova, ballerina, 1931; Charles Benjamin Bright M'Laren, first Baron Aberconway, politician, 1934; Edvard Munch, painter, 1944; Pierre Bonnard, impressionistic painter and designer, 1947; Sir Alexander Korda (Sandor Laszlo Korda), film producer, 1956; Edward 'Kid' Ory, jazz musician, 1973; Paul Bustill Robeson, actor and singer, 1976; Sir Emile Littler, theatrical impresario, 1985.

On this day: the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, 1579; the Principality of Liechtenstein was constituted, 1719; Fletcher Christian and the Bounty mutineers landed on Pitcairn Island, 1790; the musical show Our Miss Gibbs was first performed, London 1909; the first Labour Government was formed, under Ramsay McDonald, 1924; the show trial of Karl Radek and other alleged Trotskyists was held in Moscow, 1937; the British captured Tripoli, 1943; the bathyscaphe Trieste designed by Professor Piccard descended to a depth of 35,800 feet in the Pacific Ocean, 1960; the proceedings of the House of Lords were televised for the first time, 1985.

Today is the Feast Day of St Asclas, St Bernard of Vienne, Saints Clement and Agathangelus, St Emerentiana, St Ildephonsus, St John the Almsgiver, St Lufthildis and St Maimbod.

TOMORROW

Births: Hadrian, Roman emperor, 76; Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset, courtier and poet, 1638; Farinelli (Carlo Broschi), castrato singer, 1705; Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, 1712; Gustavus III, King of Sweden, 1746; Charles James Fox, politician, 1749; Johann Christian Reinhart, painter and etcher, 1761; Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann, author and composer, 1776; Sir Edwin Chadwick, sanitary pioneer, 1800; John Mason Neale, hymn- writer, 1818; Harry Quilter, barrister, artist and author, 1851; Edith Newbold (Jones) Wharton, novelist, 1862; Sir Thomas Albert Blamey, field marshal, 1884.

Deaths: Caligula, Roman emperor, assassinated 41; Gasparo Spontini, composer, 1851; Adam Black, politician and publisher, 1874; Lord Randolph Churchill (Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill), politician, 1895; Amedeo Modigliani, painter and sculptor, 1920; Otto Harbach, librettist and lyricist, 1963; Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, statesman, 1965; St John Greer Ervine, playwright and dramatic critic, 1971; George Cukor, film director, 1983.

On this day: Henry III, King of England, married Eleanor of Provence, 1236; gold was first discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's sawmill in California, 1848; the first train passed over the Forth Bridge, 1890; the first troop of Boy Scouts was formed in Britain, 1908; the first Conscription Bill was passed by the House of Commons, 1916; Clarence Hatry, financier, was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to 14 years, 1930; the Central Statistical Office was founded, 1941; Mae West made a London stage debut in her own play, Diamond Lil, 1948.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Babylas of Antioch, St Felician of Foligno, St Francis of Sales and St Macedonius the Barley-eater.

Green College

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR Manager

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: They are in need of a HR Manage...

h2 Recruit Ltd: Business Development Manager - HR Consultancy - £65,000 OTE

£35000 - £40000 per annum + £65,000 OTE: h2 Recruit Ltd: London, Birmingham, M...

Day In a Page

War with Isis: The West needs more than a White Knight

The West needs more than a White Knight

Despite billions spent on weapons, the US has not been able to counter Isis's gruesome tactics, says Patrick Cockburn
Return to Helmand: Private Davey Graham recalls the day he was shot by the Taliban

'The day I was shot by the Taliban'

Private Davey Graham was shot five times during an ambush in 2007 - it was the first, controversial photograph to show the dangers our soldiers faced in Helmand province
Revealed: the best and worst airlines for delays

Revealed: the best and worst airlines for delays

Many flyers are failing to claim compensation to which they are entitled, a new survey has found
The stories that defined 2014: From the Scottish independence referendum to the Ice Bucket Challenge, our writers voice their opinions

The stories that defined 2014

From the Scottish independence referendum to the Ice Bucket Challenge, our writers voice their opinions
Stoke-on-Trent becomes first British city to be classified as 'disaster resilient' by the United Nations

Disaster looming? Now you know where to head...

Which British city has become the first to be awarded special 'resilience' status by the UN?
Finally, a diet that works: Californian pastor's wildly popular Daniel Plan has seen his congregation greatly reduced

Finally, a diet that works

Californian pastor's wildly popular Daniel Plan has seen his congregation greatly reduced
Say it with... lyrics: The power of song was never greater, according to our internet searches

Say it with... lyrics

The power of song was never greater, according to our internet searches
Professor Danielle George: On a mission to bring back the art of 'thinkering'

The joys of 'thinkering'

Professor Danielle George on why we have to nurture tomorrow's scientists today
Monique Roffey: The author on father figures, the nation's narcissism and New Year reflections

Monique Roffey interview

The author on father figures, the nation's narcissism and New Year reflections
Introducing my anti-heroes of 2014

Introducing my anti-heroes of 2014

Their outrageousness and originality makes the world a bit more interesting, says Ellen E Jones
DJ Taylor: Good taste? It's all a matter of timing...

Good taste? It's all a matter of timing...

It has been hard to form generally accepted cultural standards since the middle of the 19th century – and the disintegration is only going to accelerate, says DJ Taylor
Olivia Jacobs & Ben Caplan: 'Ben thought the play was called 'Christian Love'. It was 'Christie in Love' - about a necrophiliac serial killer'

How we met

Olivia Jacobs and Ben Caplan
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef's breakfasts will revitalise you in time for the New Year

Bill Granger's healthy breakfasts

Our chef's healthy recipes are perfect if you've overindulged during the festive season
Transfer guide: From Arsenal to West Ham - what does your club need in the January transfer window?

Who does your club need in the transfer window?

Most Premier League sides are after a striker, but here's a full run down of the ins and outs that could happen over the next month
The Last Word: From aliens at FA to yak’s milk in the Tour, here’s to 2015

Michael Calvin's Last Word

From aliens at FA to yak’s milk in the Tour, here’s to 2015