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Births: Philipp Jakob Spener, Protestant theologian, 1635; Muzio Clementi, composer, 1752; Stendhal (Henri-Marie Beyle), novelist, 1783; Franz Commer, organist and composer, 1813; Thomas Henry Weist Hill, violinist, 1828; Edouard Manet, impressionistic painter, 1832; Ernst Abbe, physicist and industrialist, 1840; Subhas Chandra Bose, politician, 1897; Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein, film director, 1898.

Deaths: Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, 1002; William Caslon, typefounder, 1766; John Cleland, author of Fanny Hill, 1789; William Pitt the Younger, statesman, 1806; Edward Alexander McDowell, pianist and composer, 1908; John Hoppner, portrait painter, 1810; John Field, pianist and composer, 1837; Sir Francis Burdett Bt, politician, 1844; Julius Charles Hare, archdeacon and scholar, 1855; Eugene-Marin Labiche, playwright and farceur, 1888; Alexandre Cabanel, painter, 1889; William Whiteley, 'The Universal Provider', department-store owner, shot dead 1907; Anna Pavlova, ballerina, 1931; Charles Benjamin Bright M'Laren, first Baron Aberconway, politician, 1934; Edvard Munch, painter, 1944; Pierre Bonnard, impressionistic painter and designer, 1947; Sir Alexander Korda (Sandor Laszlo Korda), film producer, 1956; Edward 'Kid' Ory, jazz musician, 1973; Paul Bustill Robeson, actor and singer, 1976; Sir Emile Littler, theatrical impresario, 1985.

On this day: the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, 1579; the Principality of Liechtenstein was constituted, 1719; Fletcher Christian and the Bounty mutineers landed on Pitcairn Island, 1790; the musical show Our Miss Gibbs was first performed, London 1909; the first Labour Government was formed, under Ramsay McDonald, 1924; the show trial of Karl Radek and other alleged Trotskyists was held in Moscow, 1937; the British captured Tripoli, 1943; the bathyscaphe Trieste designed by Professor Piccard descended to a depth of 35,800 feet in the Pacific Ocean, 1960; the proceedings of the House of Lords were televised for the first time, 1985.

Today is the Feast Day of St Asclas, St Bernard of Vienne, Saints Clement and Agathangelus, St Emerentiana, St Ildephonsus, St John the Almsgiver, St Lufthildis and St Maimbod.


Births: Hadrian, Roman emperor, 76; Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset, courtier and poet, 1638; Farinelli (Carlo Broschi), castrato singer, 1705; Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, 1712; Gustavus III, King of Sweden, 1746; Charles James Fox, politician, 1749; Johann Christian Reinhart, painter and etcher, 1761; Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann, author and composer, 1776; Sir Edwin Chadwick, sanitary pioneer, 1800; John Mason Neale, hymn- writer, 1818; Harry Quilter, barrister, artist and author, 1851; Edith Newbold (Jones) Wharton, novelist, 1862; Sir Thomas Albert Blamey, field marshal, 1884.

Deaths: Caligula, Roman emperor, assassinated 41; Gasparo Spontini, composer, 1851; Adam Black, politician and publisher, 1874; Lord Randolph Churchill (Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill), politician, 1895; Amedeo Modigliani, painter and sculptor, 1920; Otto Harbach, librettist and lyricist, 1963; Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, statesman, 1965; St John Greer Ervine, playwright and dramatic critic, 1971; George Cukor, film director, 1983.

On this day: Henry III, King of England, married Eleanor of Provence, 1236; gold was first discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's sawmill in California, 1848; the first train passed over the Forth Bridge, 1890; the first troop of Boy Scouts was formed in Britain, 1908; the first Conscription Bill was passed by the House of Commons, 1916; Clarence Hatry, financier, was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to 14 years, 1930; the Central Statistical Office was founded, 1941; Mae West made a London stage debut in her own play, Diamond Lil, 1948.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Babylas of Antioch, St Felician of Foligno, St Francis of Sales and St Macedonius the Barley-eater.

Green College