Births: Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca), scholar, lyric poet and humanist, 1304; Hyacinthe Rigaud (Hyacinthe-Francois-Honorat-Mathias-Pierre-Martyr-Andre-Jean Rigau y Ros), portrait painter, 1659; James Harris, grammarian, 1709; Thomas Lovell Beddoes, playwright and poet, 1803; Sir Richard Owen, palaeontologist and biologist, 1804; John Sterling, author, 1806; Francesco Chiaromonte, composer and teacher, 1809; John Augustin Daly, playwright and theatrical manager, 1838; Max Liebermann, painter and etcher, 1847; Margaret McMillan, politician and educationist, 1860; Erik Axel Karlfeldt, poet and lyricist, 1864; Joseph-Marie Deodat de Severac, composer, 1873; Alberto Santos-Dumont, aviator, 1873; Sir John Charles Walsham Reith, first Baron Leith, first director-general of the BBC, 1889; Theda Bara (Theodosia Goodman), actress, 1890; Morris (Maurice) Leyland, cricketer, 1900; James (Jimmy) Kennedy, popular music composer, 1902.

Deaths: Robert II, King of France, 1031; Professor John Playfair, mathematician and geologist, 1819; Caroline Anne Southey (Bowles), poet and wife of Robert Southey, 1854; Carl Ludwig Emil Aarestrup, poet, 1856; Sir Richard Wallace, founder of the Wallace Collection, 1890; Jean Ingelow, poet, 1897; Pope Leo XIII, 1903; Andrew Lang, scholar, author and fairy tale editor, 1912; Guglielmo Marconi, inventor, 1937; Sir Dan Godfrey, conductor, 1939; Colonel Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, soldier, executed, 1944; King Abdullah of Jordan, assassinated 1951; Iain Norman Macleod, statesman, 1970.

On this day: Euston Station, London, opened, 1837; Charles Sturt, explorer, entered Simpson's Desert, 1845; Marshal Osman Nuri Pasha, Turkish commander, beat back the Russian attack on Plevna, Bulgaria, 1877; Oscar Slater's conviction and imprisonment on 25 May 1909, (due to mistaken identity) was quashed, 1928; Franz von Papen by a show of force removed the Socialist premier of Prussia, 1932; the 11th Olympic Games opened in Berlin, 1936; at a meeting in Rastenburg, Germany, Colonel von Stauffenburg attempted to assassinate Hitler by planting a bomb, 1944; the Peace Conference began in Paris, 1946; in Indo-China, an armistice was signed under which Vietnam was divided into North and South, 1954; the musical show Stop the World - I Want to Get Off was first produced, London 1961; Turkish forces invaded northern Cyprus, 1974; the space probe Viking 1 separated its lander which made a soft landing on Mars, 1975; 10 soldiers were killed after IRA bombs exploded in Hyde Park and Regent's Park, London, 1982.

Today is the Feast Day of St Ansegisus, St Aurelius of Carthage, St Elias of Jerusalem, St Flavian of Antioch, St Gregory Lopez, St Joseph Barsabas the Just, St Margaret of Antioch, St Wilgefortis or Liberata, St Wulmar.

ebookA unique anthology of reporting and analysis of a crucial period of history
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

HR Assistant / Human Resources Assistant

£Neg + Excellent Benefits: Guru Careers: An HR Assistant / Human Resources Ass...

Talent Community Coordinator

£Neg + Excellent Benefits: Guru Careers: A Talent Community Coordinator is nee...

Business Support - Banking - Halifax - £250 pd

£150 - £250 per day: Orgtel: HR Analyst - Banking - HR - Halifax - £150 - £250...

Geography Teacher

£24000 - £33600 per annum + pre 12 week AWR : Randstad Education Manchester Se...

Day In a Page

Backhanders, bribery and abuses of power have soared in China as economy surges

Bribery and abuses of power soar in China

The bribery is fuelled by the surge in China's economy but the rules of corruption are subtle and unspoken, finds Evan Osnos, as he learns the dark arts from a master
Commonwealth Games 2014: Highland terriers stole the show at the opening ceremony

Highland terriers steal the show at opening ceremony

Gillian Orr explores why a dog loved by film stars and presidents is finally having its day
German art world rocked as artists use renowned fat sculpture to distil schnapps

Brewing the fat from artwork angers widow of sculptor

Part of Joseph Beuys' 1982 sculpture 'Fettecke' used to distil schnapps
BBC's The Secret History of Our Streets reveals a fascinating window into Britain's past

BBC takes viewers back down memory lane

The Secret History of Our Streets, which returns with three films looking at Scottish streets, is the inverse of Benefits Street - delivering warmth instead of cynicism
Joe, film review: Nicolas Cage delivers an astonishing performance in low budget drama

Nicolas Cage shines in low-budget drama Joe

Cage plays an ex-con in David Gordon Green's independent drama, which has been adapted from a novel by Larry Brown
How to make your own gourmet ice lollies, granitas, slushy cocktails and frozen yoghurt

Make your own ice lollies and frozen yoghurt

Think outside the cool box for this summer's tempting frozen treats
Ford Fiesta is UK's most popular car of all-time, with sales topping 4.1 million since 1976

Fiesta is UK's most popular car of all-time

Sales have topped 4.1 million since 1976. To celebrate this milestone, four Independent writers recall their Fiestas with pride
10 best reed diffusers

Heaven scent: 10 best reed diffusers

Keep your rooms smelling summery and fresh with one of these subtle but distinctive home fragrances that’ll last you months
Commonwealth Games 2014: Female boxers set to compete for first time

Female boxers set to compete at Commonwealth Games for first time

There’s no favourites and with no headguards anything could happen
Five things we’ve learned so far about Manchester United under Louis van Gaal

Five things we’ve learned so far about United under Van Gaal

It’s impossible to avoid the impression that the Dutch manager is playing to the gallery a little
Screwing your way to the top? Good for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth

Screwing your way to the top?

Good for Lana Del Rey for helping kill that myth, says Grace Dent
Will the young Britons fighting in Syria be allowed to return home and resume their lives?

Will Britons fighting in Syria be able to resume their lives?

Tony Blair's Terrorism Act 2006 has made it an offence to take part in military action abroad with a "political, ideological, religious or racial motive"
Beyoncé poses as Rosie the Riveter, the wartime poster girl who became a feminist pin-up

Beyoncé poses as Rosie the Riveter

The wartime poster girl became the ultimate American symbol of female empowerment
The quest to find the perfect pair of earphones: Are custom, 3D printed earbuds the solution?

The quest to find the perfect pair of earphones

Earphones don't fit properly, offer mediocre audio quality and can even be painful. So the quest to design the perfect pair is music to Seth Stevenson's ears
US Army's shooting star: Lt-Col Steven Cole is the man Hollywood calls when it wants to borrow a tank or check a military uniform

Meet the US Army's shooting star

Lt-Col Steven Cole is the man Hollywood calls when it wants to borrow a tank or check a military uniform