Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Births: Peter von Hess, painter, 1792; Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Charles Clerel de Tocqueville, historian and politician, 1805; Fritz Lubrich, singer, writer and editor, 1862; Donald Robert Perry Marquis, author, 1878; Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini, Italian leader, 1883; Sigmund Romberg, composer, 1887; William Cameron Menzies, film director and designer, 1896; Hjalmar Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the United Nations, 1905.

Deaths: Philip I, King of France, 1108; David Teniers the Elder, painter, 1649; William Wilberforce, campaigner for the abolition of slavery, 1833; John Owens, merchant and philanthropist, 1846; Vincent van Gogh, committed suicide, 1890; King Humbert (Umberto) I of Italy, assassinated, by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci, 1900; Sir John (Giovanni Battista) Barbirolli, conductor, 1970; Erich Kastner, author, 1974; Luis Bunuel, film director, 1983; James David Graham Niven, actor, 1983; Raymond Massey, actor, 1983.

On this day: the Spanish Armada was defeated, 1588; the Permanent Court of Arbitration was set up at the Hague, 1899; the XIVth Olympic Games opened at Wembley, 1948; a military coup took place in Nigeria when President Gowon was deposed while he was out of the country, 1975; the Prince of Wales was married to Lady Diana Spencer, 1981.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Beatrice and Simplicius, St Felix II, antipope, St Faustinus and Beatrice, St Lupus of Troyes, St Martha, St Olav, King of Norway and St William of Saint-Brieuc.

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