Births: James VI and I, king, 1566; Thomas Fuller, preacher and scholar, 1608; Blaise Pascal, mathematician and philosopher, 1623; Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois, French revolutionary, 1749; Hugues-Felicite-Robert de Lamennais, church reformer, 1782; John Gibson, sculptor, 1790; Ferdinand David, violinist and composer, 1810; Charles Haddon Sir George Alexander (George Samson), actor-manager, 1858; Douglas Haig, first Earl Haig, soldier, 1861; Bessie Wallis Warfield, Duchess of Windsor, 1896; Walter Reginald Hammond, cricketer, 1903; Sir Ernst Boris Chain, bacteriologist and pioneer of penicillin, 1906.

Deaths: Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall, court favourite, beheaded 1312; Matthew Merian the Elder, engraver and bookseller, 1650; John Brown, scholar and theologian, 1787; Sir Joseph Banks, naturalist and explorer, 1820; John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, first Baron Acton, historian, 1902; Sir James Matthew Barrie, author and playwright, 1937; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, US spies for the Soviet Union, executed 1953; Jean Arthur (Gladys Georgianna Greene), actress, 1991.

On this day: King Louis XI of France created a (private) Royal Mail service, 1464; Curwen's Act, limiting the power of a British Government to manipulate seats in Parliament, was passed, 1809; an Act was passed founding the Metropolitan Police, 1829; the Earl of Rosse announced his discovery of spiral nebulae, 1850; the first Zeppelin dirigible airship, the Deutschland, was launched, 1910; a republic was proclaimed in Portugal, 1911; all German titles and names were renounced by the British Royal Family, who adopted the name Windsor, 1917; King George V conferred peerages on members of the Teck and Battenberg families, 1917; a census was taken in Great Britain, 1921; the Battle of the Philippine Sea began, 1944; Kuwait became independent, 1961.

Today is the Feast Day of St Bruno-Boniface, St Deodatus or Die, Saints Gervase and Protase, St Juliana Falconieri, St Odo of Cambrai and St Romuald.


Births: John Cleveland, poet, baptised 1613; Salvatore Rosa, painter, poet and musician, 1615; Dr George Hickes, theologian, 1642; Dr Adam Ferguson, philosopher, 1723; Anna Letitia Barbauld (Aikin), poetess, teacher and hymn- writer, 1743; Jacques Offenbach (Jakob Levy Eberst), composer, 1819; George Edmund Street, architect, 1824; Leon-Joseph-Florentin Bonnat, painter, 1833; Johannes Schreyer, musician and writer, 1856; Medardo Rosso, sculptor, 1858; Kurt Schwitters, artist and poet, 1887; Errol Flynn, actor, 1909.

Deaths: Willem Barents, explorer, in the Arctic, 1597; Carl Friedrich Abel, viola player and composer, 1787; Emmanuel- Joseph Sieyes, French revolutionary leader, 1836; King William IV 1837; James Clarence Mangan, poet, 1849; Jules-Alfred Huot de Goncourt, writer, 1870; Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys, painter, 1904; Bernard Mannes Baruch, financier, 1965; Gustaf Allan Petterssen, composer, 1980.

On this day: 147 people were confined in the cell later called the Black Hole of Calcutta, from which only 23 came out alive, 1756; the Oath of the Tennis Court (French Revolution) was made by the French National Assembly, 1789; the paddle-wheel steamer Savannah arrived at Liverpool under sail, the first steamship to cross the Atlantic, 1819; on the death of her uncle, William IV, Queen Victoria ascended the throne, 1837; West Virginia became the 35th of the United States, 1863; Italy declared war on Austria, 1866; a new Tay Railway Bridge was opened for public traffic, 1887; the Kiel Canal was formally opened, 1895; the first trolley-bus service in Britain was opened in Leeds, 1911; greyhound racing was commenced at the White City, London, 1927; the Battle of the Philippine Sea ended, 1944; the Soviet Union and the US agreed to institute a 'hot line' between the White House and the Kremlin, 1963; Sheila Scott arrived at London Airport after being the first Briton to make a round-the-world solo flight, 1966.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Adalbert of Magdeburg, St Alban of Verulam, St Bain or Bagnus, St Goban, Saints John Fenwick and John Gavan, St Silverius, Pope.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR and Payroll Manager

£35000 - £38000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This dynamic outsourced contact...

Recruitment Genius: Production & Quality Control Assistant

£19000 - £21000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: An excellent opportunity for a ...

Ashdown Group: Group HR Advisor - Kettering - £32,000

£28000 - £32000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Group HR Advisor with an established...

Guru Careers: HR Manager / HR Generalist

£40 - 50k (DOE) + Bonus: Guru Careers: We are seeking a HR Manager / HR Genera...

Day In a Page

No postcode? No vote

Floating voters

How living on a houseboat meant I didn't officially 'exist'
Louis Theroux's affable Englishman routine begins to wear thin

By Reason of Insanity

Louis Theroux's affable Englishman routine begins to wear thin
Power dressing is back – but no shoulderpads!

Power dressing is back

But banish all thoughts of Eighties shoulderpads
Spanish stone-age cave paintings 'under threat' after being re-opened to the public

Spanish stone-age cave paintings in Altamira 'under threat'

Caves were re-opened to the public
'I was the bookies’ favourite to be first to leave the Cabinet'

Vince Cable interview

'I was the bookies’ favourite to be first to leave the Cabinet'
Election 2015: How many of the Government's coalition agreement promises have been kept?

Promises, promises

But how many coalition agreement pledges have been kept?
The Gaza fisherman who built his own reef - and was shot dead there by an Israeli gunboat

The death of a Gaza fisherman

He built his own reef, and was fatally shot there by an Israeli gunboat
Saudi Arabia's airstrikes in Yemen are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Saudi airstrikes are fuelling the Gulf's fire

Arab intervention in Yemen risks entrenching Sunni-Shia divide and handing a victory to Isis, says Patrick Cockburn
Zayn Malik's departure from One Direction shows the perils of fame in the age of social media

The only direction Zayn could go

We wince at the anguish of One Direction's fans, but Malik's departure shows the perils of fame in the age of social media
Young Magician of the Year 2015: Meet the schoolgirl from Newcastle who has her heart set on being the competition's first female winner

Spells like teen spirit

A 16-year-old from Newcastle has set her heart on being the first female to win Young Magician of the Year. Jonathan Owen meets her
Jonathan Anderson: If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

If fashion is a cycle, this young man knows just how to ride it

British designer Jonathan Anderson is putting his stamp on venerable house Loewe
Number plates scheme could provide a licence to offend in the land of the free

Licence to offend in the land of the free

Cash-strapped states have hit on a way of making money out of drivers that may be in collision with the First Amendment, says Rupert Cornwell
From farm to fork: Meet the Cornish fishermen, vegetable-growers and butchers causing a stir in London's top restaurants

From farm to fork in Cornwall

One man is bringing together Cornwall's most accomplished growers, fishermen and butchers with London's best chefs to put the finest, freshest produce on the plates of some of the country’s best restaurants
Robert Parker interview: The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes

Robert Parker interview

The world's top wine critic on tasting 10,000 bottles a year, absurd drinking notes and New World wannabes
Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

Don't believe the stereotype - or should you?

We exaggerate regional traits and turn them into jokes - and those on the receiving end are in on it too, says DJ Taylor