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Births: Thomas Day, philanthropist and author, 1748; Karl Wilhelm von Humboldt, philologist, 1767; Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian leader, 1805; Francis Augustus Lathrop, mural painter, 1849; Sir Henry Rider Haggard, novelist, 1856; Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, biologist, 1887; Sir Peter Pears, tenor, 1910.

Deaths: Pope Innocent V, 1276; St John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, executed 1535; Henry Moore, marine painter, 1896; Jasper Francis Cropsey, landscape painter, 1900; Edward John Gregory, painter and engraver, 1909; Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, field marshal, assassinated 1922; Felix Klein, mathematician, 1925; Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick, philosopher, 1936; Walter John de La Mare, poet and author, 1956; Judy Garland (Frances Gumm), actress and singer, 1969; Joseph Losey, film director, 1984; Fred Astaire (Frederick Austerlitz), actor and dancer, 1987.

On this day: Richard II ascended the English throne, 1377; Charles the Bold of Burgundy was defeated by the Swiss at the Battle of Morat, 1476; Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book was issued, 1559; the first cricket match was played at Lord's Cricket Ground (present site), 1814; the St George's Channel was crossed by a balloon, 1817; Royal Assent was given to Sir Robert Peel's bill imposing Income Tax at seven old pence in the pound, 1842; Queen Victoria celebrated her Diamond Jubilee, 1897; the Northern underground line, London, was opened, 1907; Joe Louis knocked out James J. Braddock in the eighth round to became world heavyweight champion, 1937; France and Germany signed an armistice at Compiegne, 1940; applications by both East and West Germany to join the UN were accepted, 1973.

Today is the Feast Day of St Aaron of Brittany, St Eberhard of Salzburg, St John Fisher, St Joseph Cafasso, St Paulinus of Nola and St Thomas More.