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Births: Pope Paul IV, 1476; Henry VIII, King, 1491; Sir Peter Paul Rubens, painter, 1577; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, writer and philosopher, 1712; Joseph Joachim, composer and violinist, 1831; Luigi Pirandello, playwright, 1867; James Mallahan Cain, novelist, 1892; Richard Charles Rodgers, composer and lyricist, 1902.

Deaths: Pope Paul I, 767; Francis Wheatley, painter, 1801; James Madison, fourth US president, 1836; Robert O'Hara Burke, explorer of Australia, 1861; Victor Thomas Trumper, cricketer, 1915; William Wyler, film director, 1981.

On this day: the Crusaders regained Antioch from the Turks, 1098; Queen Victoria was crowned, 1838; the first Zeppelin airliner, the Deutschland, crashed in a forest near Osnabruck, 1910; Westminster Cathedral was consecrated, 1910; the Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife were shot by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian revolutionary, at Sarajevo, 1914; the Treaty of Versailles was signed, 1919.

Today is the Feast Day of St Heimrad, St Irenaeus of Lyons, St John Southworth, St Paul I, Pope, Saints Plutarch, Potamiaena and Companions and Saints Sergius and Germanus of Valaam.