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Births: St Augustine of Hippo, 354; Edward III, King of England, 1312; Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, military leader, 1567; General Sir John Moore, 1761; Esaias Tegner, bishop, scholar and poet, 1782; Edward John Trelawny, writer and traveller, 1792; Henry Brinley Richards, pianist and composer, 1819; Charles Frederick Worth, couturier, 1825; James Clerk Maxwell, physicist, 1831; Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson, writer and traveller, 1850; John Drew, actor, 1853.

Deaths: Pope St Nicholas the Great, 867; Malcolm III, King of the Scots, killed 1093; Lodovico Carracci, painter, 1619; George Sale, orientalist and translator of the Koran, 1736; William Etty, painter, 1849; Sir John Forbes, physician and author, 1861; Arthur Hugh Clough, poet, 1861; Giovanni Buonaventura Genelli, painter, 1868; Gioacchino Antonio Rossini, composer, 1868; Arnaud-Michel d'Abbadie, explorer, 1893; Ernest Giles, explorer, 1897; Camille Pissarro, painter, 1903; Enrico Cecchetti, dancer, 1928; Roark Whitney Wickliffe Bradford, novelist, 1948; Nikolai Karlovich Medtner, composer, 1951; Jacques Fath, couturier, 1954; Elsa Schiaparelli, couturiere, 1973; Robert Cedric Sherriff, playwright and novelist, 1975; Chesney Allen, comedian, 1982.

On this day: Malcolm was slain and the Scots defeated by the English at Alnwick, 1093; Texas declared its independence of Mexico, 1835; the telegraphic service between London and Paris started, 1851; serious casualties occurred among Socialist and Irish agitators on Bloody Sunday in Trafalgar Square, 1887; a Pacific treaty was signed between the United States, the British Empire, France and Japan, 1921; the inner coffin of Tutankhamen was opened at Luxor, 1925; Ahmed Soekarno became president of the Republic of Indonesia, 1945; a workers' council was set up in Budapest, following a general strike, 1956; a cyclone and tidal waves caused the death of over 500,000 people in East Pakistan, 1970; Iceland agreed a plan to end the 'Cod War' with Britain, 1973; a state of emergency was proclaimed in Britain, following an overtime ban by electricity and coal workers, 1973.

Today is the Feast Day of St Abbo of Fleury, St Arcadius, St Brice or Britius, St Didacus or Diego of Seville, St Eugenius of Toledo, St Frances Xavia Cabrini, St Homobonus, St Maxellendis, St Nicholas I, pope and St Stanislaus Kostka.


Births: Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, architect, 1668; Robert Fulton, steamboat pioneer, 1765; Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini, composer, 1774; Adam Gottlob Oehlenschlager, poet, 1779; William Glen, poet, 1789; Sir Charles Lyell, geologist, 1797; John Curwen, musician and publisher, 1816; Claude-Oscar Monet, impressionistic painter, 1840; Leo Hendrik Baekeland, inventor of Bakelite, 1863; Pandit Jawaharal Nehru, statesman, 1889; Sir Frederick Grant Banting, physician, 1891; Mrs Mamie Eisenhower (Mamie Doud), 1896; Dick Powell (Richard Ewing Powell), actor and singer, 1904; Joseph Raymond McCarthy, senator, 1908; Dame Elisabeth Frink, sculptor, 1930.

Deaths: Justinian I, Roman emperor, 565; Thomas Parr, known as 'Old Parr', reputedly aged 151, 1635; Nell (Eleanor) Gwynn, actress and mistress of Charles II, 1687; Gottfried Wilhelm, Freiherr von Leibniz, philosopher, 1716; Jean (Johann) Paul Richter, humorist, 1825; Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, philosopher, 1831; Dr John Abercrombie, physician, 1844; Robert Whitehead, inventor of the torpedo, 1905; Theodor Leschetizky, teacher and composer, 1915; Hector Hugh Munro ('Saki'), writer, killed in action 1916; Sir David Murray, artist, 1933; Manuel de Falla, composer, 1946; May Sinclair, novelist, 1946; Marie Adelaide Belloc Lowndes, novelist, 1947; Robert Emmet Sherwood, playwright, 1955; Tony Richardson, film and theatre director, 1991.

On this day: one of the greatest known earthquakes in England occurred, 1318; James Bruce discovered the source of the Blue Nile, 1770; the first London- to-Brighton car run was held, 1896; daily broadcasting from the London radio station 2LO began, 1922; book tokens first went on sale, 1932; Coventry Cathedral was destroyed by enemy bombing, 1940; the first London performance of the musical show The Bells Are Ringing was presented, 1956; after a subterranean volcano erupted, a new island, named Surtsey, appeared off Iceland, 1963; colour television transmission was begun in Britain, 1969; the Apollo 12 spacecraft was launched from Cape Kennedy, 1969; Princess Anne married Captain Mark Phillips, 1973.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Adeotus Aribert, St Dubricius or Dyfrig, St Laurence O'Toole, St Nicholas Tavelic, St Peter of Narbonne and St Stephen of Cuneo.