Anniversaries

TODAY

Births: Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, 1274; Luis de Gongora y Argote, poet and writer, 1561; Sir Kenelm Digby, diplomat and writer, 1603; Frederick I, King of Prussia, 1657; Charles-Antoine Coypel, painter, 1694; Joseph-Jerome de Lalande (Le Francais), astronomer, 1732; Thomas Bowdler, editor and self-appointed censor of Shakespeare, 1754; John Quincy Adams, sixth US President, 1767; Thomas Wakley, founder of the Lancet, 1795; Celestin-Francois Nanteuil, painter and engraver, 1813; Paul Lacombe, composer, 1837; Anna Mehlig (Falk), pianist, 1846; Arthur William Tedder, first Baron, Marshal of the RAF, 1890; Elwyn Brooks White, author, 1899.

Deaths: William Robertson, historian, 1793; Simon Newcomb, astronomer, 1909; Eugenia Maria de Montijo de Guzman, Comtesse de Teba, Empress of France, 1920; Alfred Dreyfus, soldier, 1935; George Gershwin (Jacob Gershvin), composer, 1937; Sir Arthur John Evans, archaeologist, 1941; Lucien Pissarro, landscape painter and book designer, 1944; Paul Nash, painter, printmaker and photographer, 1946; George Gard (Buddy) DeSylva, lyricist and film director, 1950; The Aga Khan III, 1957.

On this day: the Flemings defeated the Count of Artois at the Battle of the Spurs (Courtrai), 1302; the Duke of Marlborough was victorious over the French at the Battle of Oudenarde, 1708; Captain James Cook sailed from Plymouth on his last voyage, 1776; Alexander Hamilton was fatally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr, 1804; Waterloo Station, London, was officially opened, 1848; the massacre of Christians in Damascus ended, 1860; the Bombardment of Alexandria by the British Fleet began, 1882; the province of Katanga in Zaire was proclaimed independent by its prime minister, Moise Tshombe, 1960; the first television transmissions via Telstar began from Maine, US, to France, 1962; the Prince of Wales opened Britannia Road Bridge across the Menai Strait, 1980.

Today is the Feast Day of St Benedict, St Drostan, St Hidulf, St John of Bergamo and St Olga.

TOMORROW

Births: Gaius Julius Caesar, general and statesman, soldier, 100BC; Jean Petitot, enamel painter, 1607; Josiah Wedgwood, potter, 1730; Thomas Guthrie, founder of 'Ragged Schools', 1803; Claude Bernard, physiologist, 1813; Ludwig Molitor, composer, 1817; Henry David Thoreau, author and naturalist, 1817; Karl Heinrich Barth, teacher and pianist, 1847; Sir William Osler, physician, 1849; George Eastman, photographic pioneer, 1854; Charles Cottet, landscape painter, 1863; Stefan George, poet, 1868; Frederick Edwin Smith, first Earl of Birkenhead, statesman, 1872; Amedeo Modigliani, painter and sculptor, 1884; George Butterworth, composer, 1885; Oscar Hammerstein II, lyricist and author, 1895; Kirsten Flagstad, operatic singer, 1895; Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto), poet and diplomat, 1904; Yul Brynner (Youl Bryner), actor, 1915.

Deaths: Jack (John) Cade, rebel leader, 1450; Desiderius Erasmus, scholar, 1536; Jean Picard, astronomer, 1682; Titus Oates, impostor and conspirator, 1705; Alexander Hamilton, statesman, 1804; Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, writer, 1846; Robert Stevenson, lighthouse engineer, 1850; The Hon Charles Stewart Rolls, aviator and automobile manufacturer, killed 1910; Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell, traveller and archaeologist, 1926; Ferguson Wright Hume (Fergus Hume), novelist, 1932; Charles Frederick Goldie, artist, 1947; Douglas Hyde, poet, historian and first president of the Irish Republic, 1949; Mazo de la Roche, novelist, 1961; Kenneth More, actor, 1982.

On this day: William I (The Lion) of Scotland was defeated at Alnwick, Northumberland 1174; the Crusaders took Acre, 1191; Henry VIII married Catherine Parr at Hampton Court Palace, 1543; the Armada set sail from Spain, 1588; William of Orange fought the Battle of Aughrim in Ireland, 1691; the Confederation of the Rhine was formed, 1806; Crimea was evacuated, 1856; Victoria Embankment was opened by the Prince of Wales, London 1870; Britain took possession of Cyprus, 1878; Alfred Dreyfus was pardoned, his sentence quashed and he was restored to his regiment, 1906; 500 people died when the Japanese battleship Kawachi blew up in Tokuyama Bay, 1918; the musical show Bitter Sweet was first performed, London 1929; the Anglo- Soviet agreement was signed in Moscow, 1941; Thor Heyerdahl and a crew of seven crossed the Atlantic from Morocco to Barbados in 57 days, using a papyrus boat, 1970; Sao Tome and Principe became independent, 1975; Reed International agreed to sell the Mirror Group newspapers to Robert Maxwell's Pergamon Press, 1984.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Felix, Saints Hermagoras and Fortunatus, St Jason, St John Gualbert, St John Jones, St John the Iberian and St Veronica.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Guru Careers: Graduate Resourcer / Recruitment Account Executive

£18k + Bonus: Guru Careers: We are seeking a bright, enthusiastic and internet...

Reach Volunteering: Chair and trustees sought for YMCA Bolton

VOLUNTARY ONLY - EXPENSES REIMBURSED: Reach Volunteering: Bolton YMCA is now a...

Tradewind Recruitment: Geography Teacher

£150 - £180 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: Geography Teacher Geography teach...

Tradewind Recruitment: Geography Teacher

£150 - £180 per day: Tradewind Recruitment: Geography Teacher Geography teach...

Day In a Page

Sepp Blatter resignation: The beginning of Fifa's long road to reform?

Does Blatter's departure mean Fifa will automatically clean up its act?

Don't bet on it, says Tom Peck
Charles Kennedy: The baby of the House who grew into a Lib Dem giant

The baby of the House who grew into a Lib Dem giant

Charles Kennedy was consistently a man of the centre-left, dedicated to social justice, but was also a champion of liberty and an opponent of the nanny-state, says Baroness Williams
Syria civil war: The harrowing testament of a five-year-old victim of this endless conflict

The harrowing testament of a five-year-old victim of Syria's endless civil war

Sahar Qanbar lost her mother and brother as civilians and government soldiers fought side by side after being surrounded by brutal Islamist fighters. Robert Fisk visited her
The future of songwriting: How streaming is changing everything we know about making music

The future of songwriting

How streaming is changing everything we know about making music
William Shemin and Henry Johnson: Jewish and black soldiers receive World War I Medal of Honor amid claims of discrimination

Recognition at long last

Jewish and black soldiers who fought in WWI finally receive medals after claims of discrimination
Beating obesity: The new pacemaker which helps over-eaters

Beating obesity

The new pacemaker which helps over-eaters
9 best women's festival waterproofs

Ready for rain: 9 best women's festival waterproofs

These are the macs to keep your denim dry and your hair frizz-free(ish)
Cycling World Hour Record: Nervous Sir Bradley Wiggins ready for pain as he prepares to go distance

Wiggins worried

Nervous Sir Bradley ready for pain as he prepares to attempt cycling's World Hour Record
Liverpool close in on Milner signing

Liverpool close in on Milner signing

Reds baulk at Christian Benteke £32.5m release clause
On your feet! Spending at least two hours a day standing reduces the risk of heart attacks, cancer and diabetes, according to new research

On your feet!

Spending half the day standing 'reduces risk of heart attacks and cancer'
With scores of surgeries closing, what hope is there for the David Cameron's promise of 5,000 more GPs and a 24/7 NHS?

The big NHS question

Why are there so few new GPs when so many want to study medicine?
Big knickers are back: Thongs ain't what they used to be

Thongs ain't what they used to be

Big knickers are back
Thurston Moore interview

Thurston Moore interview

On living in London, Sonic Youth and musical memoirs
In full bloom

In full bloom

Floral print womenswear
From leading man to Elephant Man, Bradley Cooper is terrific

From leading man to Elephant Man

Bradley Cooper is terrific