Anniversaries

Births: Inigo Jones, architect, 1573; Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, painter, 1606; Sir Henry Cole, promoter of the Great Exhibition of 1851 and founder of the South Kensington Museum, 1808; Henry Edward Manning, Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, 1808; Benno Adam, animal painter, 1812; Vilfredo Pareto, economist and sociologist, 1848; Dame Marie Tempest (Marie Susan Etherington), actress, 1864; Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, first Viscount Northcliffe, newspaper proprietor, 1865; Jose Enrique Rodo, essayist, 1872; Noel Gay (Richard Moxon Armitage), composer, 1898; Dorothy Fields, lyricist, 1905.

Deaths: Rudolf I, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor, 1291; Annibale Carracci, painter, 1609; James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of Charles II, executed 1685; John Wilson, botanist, 1751; Charles Andrew Vanloo, painter, 1765; Winthrop MacMackworth Praed, politician and poet, 1839; William Thomas Morton, dentist, introducer of ether as a general anaesthetic, 1868; William H. Bonney (alias Henry McCarty, or 'Billy the Kid'), outlaw, shot by Sheriff Pat Garrett 1881; 'General Tom Thumb' (Charles Sherwood Stratton), a 40in-tall dwarf in Barnum's circus, 1883; Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, playwright and author, 1904; Hugo von Hofmannsthal, playwright and poet, 1929; Walter Gay, artist, 1937; Dr John Mellanby, physiologist, 1939; Sir Percy Scott Worthington, architect, 1939; John Joseph Pershing, soldier, 1948; Nuri- es-Said, Iraqi soldier and statesman, assassinated 1958; Lawrence Mervil Tibbett, baritone, 1960; Paul William Gallico, writer, 1976; Margaret Mary Lockwood, actress, 1990.

On this day: Jerusalem was captured by the Crusaders, 1099; the Battle of Tannenburg was fought between the Teutonic Knights and King Ladislas II of Poland, 1410; the Royal Society was granted a royal charter, 1662; the 'Marseillaise' was adopted as the French national anthem, 1795; margarine was patented by Hippolyte Mege-Mouries, of Paris, 1869; social insurance came into effect in Britain, 1912; Mrs Clara Adams of New York was the first woman to complete a round- the-world flight (19 hours, 4 minutes), 1939; Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in Britain, 1948; close- up pictures of Mars were transmitted by television from the US satellite Mariner IV, 1965; in Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios was deposed as president in a coup by Greek officers of the Cyprus National Guard, 1974.

Today is the Feast Day of St Athanasius of Naples, St Barhadbesaba, St Bonaventure, St David of Munktorp, St Donald, St Edith of Polesworth, St Pompilio Pirrotti, St Swithin, St Vladimir of Kiev.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
SPONSORED FEATURES
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: Internal Recruiter - Manufacturing

£20000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: An Internal Recruiter (manufact...

Ashdown Group: HR Manager (CIPD) - Barking / East Ham - £50-55K

£50000 - £55000 per annum + 25 days holidays & benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Man...

Recruitment Genius: Operations / Project Manager

£40000 - £48000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This software company specialis...

Ashdown Group: Human Resources Manager

£28000 - £35000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: A successful organisation...

Day In a Page

The Silk Roads that trace civilisation: Long before the West rose to power, Asian pathways were connecting peoples and places

The Silk Roads that trace civilisation

Long before the West rose to power, Asian pathways were connecting peoples and places
House of Lords: Outcry as donors, fixers and MPs caught up in expenses scandal are ennobled

The honours that shame Britain

Outcry as donors, fixers and MPs caught up in expenses scandal are ennobled
When it comes to street harassment, we need to talk about race

'When it comes to street harassment, we need to talk about race'

Why are black men living the stereotypes and why are we letting them get away with it?
International Tap Festival: Forget Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers - this dancing is improvised, spontaneous and rhythmic

International Tap Festival comes to the UK

Forget Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers - this dancing is improvised, spontaneous and rhythmic
War with Isis: Is Turkey's buffer zone in Syria a matter of self-defence – or just anti-Kurd?

Turkey's buffer zone in Syria: self-defence – or just anti-Kurd?

Ankara accused of exacerbating racial division by allowing Turkmen minority to cross the border
Doris Lessing: Acclaimed novelist was kept under MI5 observation for 18 years, newly released papers show

'A subversive brothel keeper and Communist'

Acclaimed novelist Doris Lessing was kept under MI5 observation for 18 years, newly released papers show
Big Blue Live: BBC's Springwatch offshoot swaps back gardens for California's Monterey Bay

BBC heads to the Californian coast

The Big Blue Live crew is preparing for the first of three episodes on Sunday night, filming from boats, planes and an aquarium studio
Austin Bidwell: The Victorian fraudster who shook the Bank of England with the most daring forgery the world had known

Victorian fraudster who shook the Bank of England

Conman Austin Bidwell. was a heartless cad who carried out the most daring forgery the world had known
Car hacking scandal: Security designed to stop thieves hot-wiring almost every modern motor has been cracked

Car hacking scandal

Security designed to stop thieves hot-wiring almost every modern motor has been cracked
10 best placemats

Take your seat: 10 best placemats

Protect your table and dine in style with a bold new accessory
Ashes 2015: Alastair Cook not the only one to be caught in The Oval mindwarp

Cook not the only one to be caught in The Oval mindwarp

Aussie skipper Michael Clarke was lured into believing that what we witnessed at Edgbaston and Trent Bridge would continue in London, says Kevin Garside
Can Rafael Benitez get the best out of Gareth Bale at Real Madrid?

Can Benitez get the best out of Bale?

Back at the club he watched as a boy, the pressure is on Benitez to find a winning blend from Real's multiple talents. As La Liga begins, Pete Jenson asks if it will be enough to stop Barcelona
Athletics World Championships 2015: Beijing witnesses new stage in the Jessica Ennis-Hill and Katarina Johnson-Thompson heptathlon rivalry

Beijing witnesses new stage in the Jess and Kat rivalry

The last time the two British heptathletes competed, Ennis-Hill was on the way to Olympic gold and Johnson-Thompson was just a promising teenager. But a lot has happened in the following three years
Jeremy Corbyn: Joining a shrewd operator desperate for power as he visits the North East

Jeremy Corbyn interview: A shrewd operator desperate for power

His radical anti-austerity agenda has caught the imagination of the left and politically disaffected and set a staid Labour leadership election alight
Isis executes Palmyra antiquities chief: Defender of ancient city's past was killed for protecting its future

Isis executes Palmyra antiquities chief

Robert Fisk on the defender of the ancient city's past who was killed for protecting its future