Births: Philip I, King of Spain, 1478; The Rev William Archibald Spooner, originator of 'spoonerisms', 1844; William Poel (Pole), actor-manager, 1852; Selman Abraham Waksman, biochemist, 1888; James Whale, film director, 1896; Stephen Vincent Benet, poet and novelist, 1898; Alexander Calder, bent-wire and metal sculptor, 1898.

Deaths: Simon Langham, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1376; Charles VII of France, 1461; Henry III of France, assassinated, 1589; John Dalton, poet, 1763; John Meade Falkner, novelist, 1932; Florenz Ziegfeld, theatrical producer, 1932; John Dillinger, 'Public Enemy No 1', shot dead in ambush, 1934; William Lyon Mackenzie King, statesman, 1950; Carl Sandburg, poet, 1967; Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler, archaeologist, 1976.

On this day: Belgrade was besieged by the Ottoman Turks, 1456; in Spain, the Duke of Wellington defeated the French in the Battle of Salamanca, 1812; the Mormons, moving westwards, reached the site of Salt Lake City, 1847; Federal troops stopped the Confederates at the Battle of Atlanta, 1864; in Russia, Alexander Kerensky became prime minister, 1917; Wiley Post completed the first round-the-world solo air flight in 7 days, 18 hours, 49 minutes, 1933; the Bretton Woods Conference on international monetary policy ended, 1944; in Britain, bread rationing started, 1946; after six years in exile, King Leopold III returned to Belgium, 1950; the Russian unmanned spacecraft Venera 8 made a soft landing on Venus, 1972; Greece and Turkey agreed to a ceasefire in Cyprus, 1974; the first London performance of the musical show A Chorus Line was staged, 1976.

Today is the Feast Day of St John Lloyd, St Joseph of Palestine, St Mary Magdalen, St Philip Evans, St Vandrille or Wandregesilus.

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