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Births: George Bradshaw, publisher and originator of railway guides, 1801; Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Charles Clerel de Tocqueville, historian and politician, 1805; Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini, Italian leader, 1883; William Cameron Menzies, film director and designer, 1896; Hjalmar Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the United Nations, 1905.

Deaths: William Wilberforce, campaigner for the abolition of slavery, 1833; John Owens, merchant and philanthropist, 1846; Robert Alexander Schumann, composer, 1856; Vincent van Gogh, committed suicide, 1890; King Humbert I of Italy, assassinated, 1900; Herbert Marcuse, philosopher, 1979; Luis Bunuel, film director, 1983; James David Graham Niven, actor, 1983; Raymond Massey, actor, 1983.

On this day: Mary, Queen of Scots married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, 1565; the Spanish Armada was defeated, 1588; The Good Companions, a novel by JB Priestley, was published, 1929; the 14th Olympic Games opened at Wembley, 1948; a military coup took place in Nigeria when President Gowon was deposed while he was out of the country, 1975; the Prince of Wales was married to Lady Diana Spencer, 1981.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Beatrice and Simplicius, St Felix II, antipope, St Faustinus and Beatrice, St Lupus of Troyes, St Martha, St Olav, King of Norway and St William of Saint-Brieuc.