Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Births: Abbe Maximilian Stadler, priest and composer, 1748; Henry Charles Litolff, composer, 1818; Dean Frederic William Farrar, theologian and author of Eric, or Little by Little, 1831; Allan James Foli (Foley), bass singer, 1835; Ludwig Bernhard Hopffer, composer, 1840; Emile Nolde (Emil Hansen), expressionist painter, 1867; Sir Granville Bantock, composer and conductor, 1868; Mata Hari (Margaretha Geertruide Zelle), Dutch-born German spy, 1876; Billie Burke (Mary William Ethelbert Appleton Burke), actress, 1885; Sydney Howard, comedian, 1885; Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey, archaeologist and anthropologist, 1903; Ralph Johnson Bunche, diplomat and Nobel prizewinner, 1904.

Deaths: Robert Blake, admiral, 1657; Caroline, Queen of George IV, 1821; Joseph-Marie Jacquard, weaver and inventor, 1834; Horace Wigan, actor, manager and playwright, 1885; James Hall, geologist and palaeontologist, 1898; Curbastro Gregorio Ricci, mathematician, 1925; Bix (Leon Bismarck) Beiderbecke, jazz cornet- player and composer, 1931; Konstantin Stanislavsky (Konstantin Sergeyevich Alekseyev), theatre director, 1938; Sir Rabindranath Tagore, writer, 1941; Oliver Norvell Hardy, film comedian, 1957.

On this day: the Council of Pisa was dissolved, 1409; Henry Tudor (later King Henry VII) landed at Milford Haven in a bid for the crown, 1485; the first race meeting at Ascot was instituted by Queen Anne, 1711; the two suffragettes Mrs Mary Leigh and Gladys Evans were sentenced to five years' penal servitude for setting fire to the Theatre Royal, Dublin 1912; Louis Philippe was proclaimed 'citizen king' of France, 1830; an act of Parliament was passed prohibiting the employment of climbing boys as chimney-sweeps, 1840; Ottawa (formerly Bytown), became the capital of Canada, 1858; Finsbury Park was opened, occupying the land of the former Hornsey Wood, London 1869; Florence Maybrick was found guilty of murdering her husband, 1889; Britain issued pounds 1 and 10-shilling notes, 1914; the Daylight Saving Act, which permanently established British Summer Time, was passed, 1925; the first motor racing Grand Prix in Britain was held at Brooklands, 1926; Britain's transatlantic airmail service began, 1939; US forces landed on Guadalcanal, 1942; 1,200 people were killed when a train drawing seven trucks containing dynamite exploded, Columbia 1956; the French colony of the Ivory Coast became independent, 1960.

Today is the Feast Day of Saints Agapitus, Sixtus II and Felicissimus, St Albert of Trapani, St Cajetan or Gaetano, St Claudia, St Dogmetius the Persian, St Donatus of Arezzo, St Victricius.

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