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Births: Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of King Henry VIII, 1515; Christian Kalkbrenner, singer, composer and writer, 1755; Michael Faraday, physicist and chemist, 1791; George Bentham, botanist, 1800; Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, suffragette, 1880; Erich von Stroheim, actor and film director, 1885.

Deaths: Selim I, Sultan of Turkey, 1520; Johann Agricola, Protestant reformer, 1566; Nathan Hale, American revolutionary patriot, hanged 1776; Gustave Rodolphe Clarence Boulanger, painter, 1888; Alain-Fournier, writer, killed in action on the Marne 1914; Ivan Minchov Vazov, poet and novelist, 1921; Thomas Burke, novelist and author, 1945; Oliver Joseph St John Gogarty, physician and writer, 1957; Mary Roberts Rinehart, novelist, 1958; Harry Warren, composer, 1981; Axel Springer, publisher, 1985.

On this day: Sir Robert Walpole became the first prime minister to move into 10 Downing Street, 1735; France was declared to be a Republic, 1792; Joseph Smith announced the discovery of the Book of Mormon, 1827; Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, ordering the freeing of slaves, 1862; Otto von Bismarck became prime minister of Prussia, 1862; Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were admitted to the League of Nations, 1921; Gene Tunney beat Jack Dempsey for the world heavyweight boxing title, 1927; 265 miners were killed at a pit disaster at Gresford, North Wales, 1934; Independent Television began operating in Britain, 1955; Mali became independent, 1960; a woman was arrested after trying to shoot President Ford in San Francisco, 1975.

Today is the Feast Day of St Bodo, St Emmeramus, St Felix III (IV), pope, St Laudus or Lo, St Maurice of Agaunum, St Phocas the Gardener, St Salaberga, St Thomas of Villanova and The Theban Legion.