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Births: Edward VI, King of England, 1537; Pedro I (Antonio Pedro de Alcantara Bourbon) Emperor of Brazil, 1798; Elmer Ambrose Sperry, inventor, 1860; James Ramsay MacDonald, statesman, 1866; Ralph Vaughan Williams, composer, 1872; Aleister Edward Alexander Crowley, author and occultist, 1875; Luis de Freitas Branco, composer, 1890; James Phillip McAuley, poet, 1917.

Deaths: Piero della Francesca, painter and writer, 1492; Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1576; Elizabeth Fry, Quaker prison reformer, 1845; Robert Stephenson, civil engineer, 1859; Robert Edward Lee, Confederate general, 1870; Francois-Pierre Guizot, statesman and historian, 1874; Edith Louisa Cavell, nurse, executed by the Germans, 1915; Anatole France (Jacques-Anatole Thibault), author, 1924; The Grand Duke Cyril Romanov of Russia, 1938; Tom Mix (Thomas Edwin Mix), actor, 1940; Paul Hermann Muller, chemist, 1965.

On this day: an island in the West Indies was discovered by Christopher Columbus, which he named San Salvador, 1492; a powder magazine exploded at Delft, largely destroying the city, 1654; the French fleet was defeated off Vigo by Admiral Sir George Rooke, 1702; Pedro I was proclaimed Emperor of Brazil, 1822; the borough councillors of Poplar, London, were released from prison, where they had been committed for refusing to levy certain rates, 1921; an iron lung was used for the first time, at Boston, USA, 1928; a wartime base in the Azores was granted to Britain by Portugal, 1943; the first Morris Minor car designed by Alec Issigonis was produced at Cowley, Oxon, 1948; the College of Europe opened at Bruges, Belgium, 1950; Equatoria1 Guinea became independent, 1968; the XIXth Olympic Games opened in Mexico City, 1968; in the US, Gerald Ford was nominated Vice-President by Richard Nixon, 1973; the first London production of the musical show Little Shop of Horrors was presented, 1983.

Today is the Feast Day of St Edwin, St Ethelburga of Barking, Saints Felix and Cyprian, St Maximilian of Lorch and St Wilfrid of York.