Anniversaries

TODAY

Births: Robert Harley, first Earl of Oxford, politician, 1661; Martin van Buren, eighth US president, 1782; Christina Georgina Rossetti, poet, 1830; Karl Friedrich Ludwig Nohl, writer on music, 1831; George Armstrong Custer, cavalry commander, 1839; Sir John Frederick Bridge, composer, 1844; Admiral John Rushworth Jellicoe, first Earl, commander of the Fleet at Jutland, 1859; Jozef Clemens Pilsudski, statesman, 1867; Vitezslav Novak, composer, 1870; Fritz Lang, film director, 1890; Walter (Walt) Elias Disney, creator of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck, 1901; Werner Karl Heisenberg, physicist, 1901; Otto Preminger, film director, 1906.

Deaths: Francis II, king of France, 1560; Sir Henry Wotton, diplomat, poet and author, 1639; Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Verendrye, explorer and soldier, 1749; Giovanni Battista Morgagni, pathologist, 1771; Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, composer, 1791; Carlo Giovanni Maria Denina, historian, 1813; Friedrich Leopold, Count Stolberg-Stolberg, poet and author, 1819; Thomas Pringle, poet, 1834; Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie Dumas pere, novelist, 1870; George John Whyte-Melville, novelist, 1878; Sir Henry Tate, sugar refiner and philanthropist, 1899; Ex-Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, 1891; Claude-Oscar Monet, painter, 1926; Nicholas Vachel Lindsay, poet, 1931; Jan Kubelik, violinist, 1940; Joseph Erlanger, neuro-physiologist, 1965; Princess Andrew of Greece, mother of the Duke of Edinburgh, 1969; Ethel Edith Mannin, novelist and travel writer, 1984.

On this day: thousands of people died following an earthquake in the Neapolitan area, 1456; James Christie, London auctioneer, held his first sale, 1766; the US brig Mary Celeste was found abandoned in the Atlantic, 1872; German and Russian delegates at Brest-Litovsk signed an armistice for seven days to take effect on 7 December, 1917; a plebiscite held in Greece favoured the return of King Constantine, 1920; under the 21st Amendment, prohibition was repealed in the United States, 1933; Britain declared war on Finland, Hungary and Romania after they refused to withdraw from the war against the Soviet Union, 1941; Britain's first motorway, a bypass around Preston, opened, 1958; the first female British priest was ordained in New Jersey, US 1981; the United Kingdom withdrew from membership of Unesco, 1985.

Today is the Feast Day of St Birinus, St Christian, St Crispina, St John Almond, St Justinian or Iestin, St Nicetius of Trier, St Sabas and St Sigiramnus or Cyran.

TOMORROW

Births: Henry VI, King, 1421; Baldassarre Castiglione, courtier, 1478; George Monck, first Duke of Albemarle, admiral and general, 1608; Sir Edmund Andros, diplomat and governor of Virginia, 1637; Chretien-Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, statesman, 1721; Warren Hastings, first Governor-General of India, 1732; Sir David Baird, soldier, 1757; Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac, chemist and physicist, 1778; The Rev Richard Harris Barham ('Thomas Ingoldsby'), humorist and author, 1788; Luigi Lablache, bass singer, 1794; Paul Emile Botta, archaeologist, 1802; Gilbert-Louis Duprez, tenor and composer, 1806; Charles John, first Baron Darling, judge, 1849; August von Mackensen, German field marshal, 1849; Charles Martin Hall, chemist, 1863; Sir Francis Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell, writer, 1892; Sylvia Townsend Warner, novelist, 1893; Ira Gershwin (Israel Gershvin), lyricist, 1896.

Deaths: Afonso I Henriques of Portugal, after a reign of 73 years, 220 days, 1185; Pope Clement VI, 1352; Dr John Lightfoot, clergyman and scholar, 1675; Jean- Baptiste-Simeon Chardin, painter, 1779; Dr Joseph Black, chemist, 1799; Egide Charles Gustav Wappers, Baron, painter, 1874; Jean-Joseph-Charles-Louis Blanc, socialist journalist and revolutionary, 1882; Anthony Trollope, novelist and Post Office official, 1882; Jefferson Davis, former President of the Confederate States of America, 1889; Ernst Werner von Siemens, inventor, 1892; Stella Benson, novelist, 1933; Roy Orbison (Kelton), popular singer and composer, 1988.

On this day: Christopher Columbus discovered Hispaniola (now Haiti and Dominican Republic), 1492; Sir Colin Campbell's men defeated the Sepoy mutineers at the Battle of Cawnpore, 1857; self-government was granted to the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, 1906; the Powers approved the accession of Prince William of Wied to the throne of Albania, 1913; the Germans captured Bucharest, 1916; Finland was declared independent from Russia, 1917; the ship Mont Blanc, loaded with 3,000 tons of TNT, collided and exploded, killing 1,654 people, Halifax harbour, Nova Scotia 1917; British troops entered Cologne and US troops occupied Mainz, 1918; the Irish Free State was established, 1922; the Libyan frontier agreement was signed between Egypt and Italy, 1925; India recognised Bangladesh (East Pakistan) as an independent republic, 1971; war broke out between India and Pakistan, 1971; Gerald Ford was sworn in as Vice-President of the US, 1973; Britain's first heart and lung transplant operation took place on Mr Lars Ljunberg from Sweden, 1983; Egon Krenz was ousted as head of state, East Germany 1989.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Abraham of Kratia, St Asella, Saints Dionysia, Majoricus and their Companions, St Gertrude the Elder and St Nicholas of Bari.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Ashdown Group: HR Manager - West London - £50,000

£40000 - £50000 per annum + bonus: Ashdown Group: HR Manager - West London - £...

Recruitment Genius: Recruitment & HR Administrator

£17000 - £18000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Guru Careers: HR Manager / HR Business Partner

£55 - 65k (DOE) + Benefits: Guru Careers: A HR Manager / HR Business Partner i...

Recruitment Genius: Senior HR Assistant

£23000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: The Company's vision is to be t...

Day In a Page

Greece debt crisis: EU 'family' needs to forgive rather than punish an impoverished state

EU 'family' needs to forgive rather than punish an impoverished state

An outbreak of malaria in Greece four years ago helps us understand the crisis, says Robert Fisk
Gaza, a year on from Operation Protective Edge: The traumatised kibbutz on Israel's front line, still recovering from last summer's war with Hamas

Gaza, a year on from Operation Protective Edge

The traumatised kibbutz on Israel's front line, still recovering from last summer's war with Hamas
How to survive electrical storms: What are the chances of being hit by lightning?

Heavy weather

What are the chances of being hit by lightning?
World Bodypainting Festival 2015: Bizarre and brilliant photos celebrate 'the body as art'

World Bodypainting Festival 2015

Bizarre and brilliant photos celebrate 'the body as art'
alt-j: A private jet, a Mercury Prize and Latitude headliners

Don't call us nerds

Craig Mclean meets alt-j - the math-folk act who are flying high
How to find gold: The Californian badlands, digging out crevasses and sifting sludge

How to find gold

Steve Boggan finds himself in the Californian badlands, digging out crevasses and sifting sludge
Singing accents: From Herman's Hermits and David Bowie to Alesha Dixon

Not born in the USA

Lay off Alesha Dixon: songs sound better in US accents, even our national anthem
10 best balsamic vinegars

10 best balsamic vinegars

Drizzle it over salad, enjoy it with ciabatta, marinate vegetables, or use it to add depth to a sauce - this versatile staple is a cook's best friend
Wimbledon 2015: Brief glimpses of the old Venus but Williams sisters' epic wars belong to history

Brief glimpses of the old Venus but Williams sisters' epic wars belong to history

Serena dispatched her elder sister 6-4, 6-3 in eight minutes more than an hour
Greece says 'No': A night of huge celebrations in Athens as voters decisively back Tsipras and his anti-austerity stance in historic referendum

Greece referendum

Greeks say 'No' to austerity and plunge Europe into crisis
Ten years after the 7/7 terror attacks, is Britain an altered state?

7/7 bombings anniversary

Ten years after the terror attacks, is Britain an altered state?
Beautiful evening dresses are some of the loveliest Donatella has created

Versace haute couture review

Beautiful evening dresses are some of the loveliest Donatella has ever created
No hope and no jobs, so Gaza's young risk their lives, climb the fence and run for it

No hope and no jobs in Gaza

So the young risk their lives and run for it
Fashion apps: Retailers roll together shopping and social networking for mobile customers

Fashion apps

Retailers roll together shopping and social networking for mobile customers
The Greek referendum exposes a gaping hole at the heart of the European Union – its distinct lack of any genuine popular legitimacy

Gaping hole at the heart of the European Union

Treatment of Greece has shown up a lack of genuine legitimacy