Births: Prince Rupert of Bavaria, Royalist commander, 1619; Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise du Chatelet, writer, 1706; Domenico Cimarosa, composer, 1749; Jean-Baptiste Girard, priest and educator, 1765; Ludwig van Beethoven, composer, baptised 1770; Francois-Marius Granet, painter, 1777; Sir Humphry Davy, chemist and inventor, 1778; Sir George Hayter, painter, 1792; Joseph Henry, physicist, 1797; John Greenleaf Whittier, poet and essayist, 1807; Thomas Woolner, sculptor and poet, 1825; Jules-Alfred-Huot de Goncourt, novelist and historian, 1830; Berthold Tours, composer, 1838; Ford Madox Ford (Ford Hermann Hueffer), novelist, 1873; William Lyon MacKenzie King, statesman, 1874; J. Robertson Hare, actor, 1891; Erskine Preston Caldwell, novelist, 1903; Walter Greenwood, novelist and playwright, 1903; Stanley Raymond (Ray) Noble, composer and conductor, 1903; Willard Frank Libby, chemist, 1908.

Deaths: Pope Gregory VIII, 1187; Sir William Gascoigne, Lord Chief Justice, 1413; Thomas Guy, bookseller and philanthropist, 1724; Simon Bolivar, South American patriot, 1830; Kaspar Hauser, the foundling 'wild boy' of Nuremberg, 1833; Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, hydrographer, 1857; Lewis Henry Morgan, anthropologist and lawyer, 1881; Louis-Marie-Alphonse Daudet, novelist, 1897; Baron Ferdinand James de Rothschild, banker, 1898; Bernard Quaritch, bookseller, 1899; William Thomson Kelvin, first Baron Kelvin, physicist, 1907; Leopold II, King of the Belgians, 1909; Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, physician, 1917; Peter Philip Heseltine Warlock, composer and editor, committed suicide 1930; Robert Malise Bowyer Nichols, poet, 1944; Sir Bernard Henry Spilsbury, pathologist, 1947; Harold Edward Holt, statesman, drowned 1967.

On this day: Drake's ship The Pelican (afterwards called The Golden Hind) sailed out of Plymouth on a round-the-world voyage, 1577; Simon Bolivar became president of Colombia, 1819; the Lyric Theatre opened, London 1888; the first radio message was sent across the Atlantic, 1902; the Wright brothers made their first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, 1903; Britain proclaimed a protectorate over Egypt, 1914; King George II was deposed after a rebellion by the Greek army, 1923; Mussolini denounced the Franco-Italian agreement of 1935, 1938; the battleship Graf Spee was scuttled near Montevideo, after the Battle of the River Plate, 1939; President Roosevelt proposed 'Lease- Lend' for Britain, 1940; New York was snowed under by 27in of snow, 1947; petrol rationing was imposed in Britain due to the closing of the Suez Canal, 1956; Alec Rose arrived at Melbourne in his ketch Lively Lady after a solo voyage from Portsmouth of five months, 1967; Zulficar Ali Bhutto became prime minister of Pakistan, 1971; 31 people were killed when Arab guerrillas hijacked a West German airliner at Rome airport, 1973; the musical Hans Andersen was first produced, London 1974.

Today is the Feast Day of St Begga, St Lazarus, St Olympias, St Sturmi and St Wivina.

ebooksAn unforgettable anthology of contemporary reportage
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Chief Executive

£28, 700: Whiskey Whiskey Tango: Property Management Company is seeking a brig...

COO / Chief Operating Officer

£80 - 100k + Bonus: Guru Careers: A COO / Chief Operating Officer is needed to...

HR Manager - Kent - £45,000

£40000 - £45000 per annum: Ashdown Group: HR Manager / Training Manager (L&D /...

HR Manager - Edgware, London - £45,000

£40000 - £45000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Manager - Edgware, Lon...

Day In a Page

Italian couples fake UK divorce scam on an ‘industrial scale’

Welcome to Maidenhead, the divorce capital of... Italy

A look at the the legal tourists who exploited our liberal dissolution rules
Tom and Jerry cartoons now carry a 'racial prejudice' warning on Amazon

Tom and Jerry cartoons now carry a 'racial prejudice' warning on Amazon

The vintage series has often been criticised for racial stereotyping
Llansanffraid is now Llansantffraid. Welsh town changes its name, but can you spot the difference?

Llansanffraid is now Llansantffraid

Welsh town changes its name, but can you spot the difference?
Great British Bake Off, semi-final, review: Richard remains the baker to beat

Tensions rise in Bake Off's pastry week

Richard remains the baker to beat as Chetna begins to flake
Ebola outbreak: The children orphaned by the virus – then rejected by surviving relatives over fear of infection

The children orphaned by Ebola...

... then rejected by surviving relatives over fear of infection
Pride: Are censors pandering to homophobia?

Are censors pandering to homophobia?

US film censors have ruled 'Pride' unfit for under-16s, though it contains no sex or violence
The magic of roundabouts

Lords of the rings

Just who are the Roundabout Appreciation Society?
Why do we like making lists?

Notes to self: Why do we like making lists?

Well it was good enough for Ancient Egyptians and Picasso...
Hong Kong protests: A good time to open a new restaurant?

A good time to open a new restaurant in Hong Kong?

As pro-democracy demonstrators hold firm, chef Rowley Leigh, who's in the city to open a new restaurant, says you couldn't hope to meet a nicer bunch
Paris Fashion Week: Karl Lagerfeld leads a feminist riot on 'Boulevard Chanel'

Paris Fashion Week

Lagerfeld leads a feminist riot on 'Boulevard Chanel'
Bruce Chatwin's Wales: One of the finest one-day walks in Britain

Simon Calder discovers Bruce Chatwin's Wales

One of the finest one-day walks you could hope for - in Britain
10 best children's nightwear

10 best children's nightwear

Make sure the kids stay cosy on cooler autumn nights in this selection of pjs, onesies and nighties
Manchester City vs Roma: Five things we learnt from City’s draw at the Etihad

Manchester City vs Roma

Five things we learnt from City’s Champions League draw at the Etihad
Martin Hardy: Mike Ashley must act now and end the Alan Pardew reign

Trouble on the Tyne

Ashley must act now and end Pardew's reign at Newcastle, says Martin Hardy
Isis is an hour from Baghdad, the Iraq army has little chance against it, and air strikes won't help

Isis an hour away from Baghdad -

and with no sign of Iraq army being able to make a successful counter-attack