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Births: Franz Commer, organist and composer, 1813; Thomas Henry Weist Hill, violinist, 1828; Edouard Manet, painter, 1832; Ernst Abbe, physicist and industrialist, 1840; Benoit-Constant Coquelin, actor, 1841; Hans Heinrich, Graf von Hochberg, comp oser, 1843; Antoinette Sterling, contralto, 1850; Gilbert Ledward, sculptor, 1888; Subhas Chandra Bose, politician, 1897; Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein, film director, 1898.

Deaths: Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, 1002; William Baffin, explorer, 1622; William Caslon, typefounder, 1766; John Cleland, author of Fanny Hill, 1789; William Pitt the Younger, statesman, 1806; John Field, pianist and composer, 1837; Sir Francis Burdett, politician, 1844; Julius Charles Hare, archdeacon and scholar, 1855; Charles Kingsley, poet and novelist, 1875; Louis-Christophe Gustave-Paul Dore, artist, 1883; Alexandre Cabanel, painter, 1889; William Whiteley, ``The Universal Provider'', dep artment-store owner, shot dead 1907; Edward Alexander MacDowell, composer, 1908; Anna Pavlova, ballerina, 1931; Dame Clara Ellen Butt, contralto, 1936; Edvard Munch, painter, 1944; Pierre Bonnard, painter and designer, 1947; Sir Alexander Korda (Sandor L aszlo Korda), film producer, 1956; Ruth Suckow, novelist, 1960; Edward ``Kid'' Ory, jazz musician, 1973; Paul Bustill Robeson, actor and singer, 1976; Frank Owen, editor and journalist, 1979; Samuel Barber, composer, 1981; Sir Emile Littler, theatrical i mpresario, 1985.

On this day: the Royal Exchange, London, was opened by Queen Elizabeth I, 1571; the Treaty of Utrecht was signed, 1579; the Principality of Liechtenstein was constituted, 1719; Fletcher Christian and the Bounty mutineers landed on Pitcairn Island, 1790; the first Labour government was formed, under Ramsay McDonald, 1924; the show trial of Karl Radek and other alleged Trotskyists was held in Moscow, 1937; the bathyscaphe Trieste designed by Professor Piccard descended to a depth of 35,800 feet in the Pacific Ocean, 1960; the USS Pueblo was seized by the North Koreans, 1968; the proceedings of the House of Lords were televised for the first time, 1985.

Today is the Feast Day of St Asclas, St Bernard of Vienne, Saints Clement and Agathangelus, St Emerentiana, St Ildephonsus, St John the Almsgiver, St Lufthildis and St Maimbod.