ANNIVERSARIES

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The Independent Online
Births: Franois de Lorraine, Duc de Guise, statesman, 1519; Horace Benedict de Saussure, geologist, 1740; John Pinkerton, historian, 1758; Sir Edward German (Edward German Jones), composer, 1862; Ronald Arbuthnott Knox, theologian and essayist, 1888.

Deaths: Molire (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin), playwright, 1673; Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, educationist, 1827; Geronimo (Goyathlay - "One Who Yawns"), Apache chief, 1909; Sir Hans Hofmann, painter, 1966; Sir Donald Wolfit, actor, 1968; Graham Vivian Sutherland, painter, 1980; Lee Strasberg, actor and founder of the Actors' Studio, 1982.

On this day: the Yorkists were defeated by the Lancastrians at the Battle of St Albans, 1461; an attempt to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia was made by an explosion at the Winter Palace, St Petersburg, 1880; Puccini's opera Madam Butterfly was first produced, Milan, 1904; the inner tomb of Tutankhamun was opened at Luxor by the team led by the Earl of Carnarvon, 1923; the British National Health Service White Paper was issued, 1944.

Today is the Feast Day of St Evermod, St Finan of Lindisfarne, St Fintan of Cloneenagh, St Loman, The Seven Servite Founders and Saints Theodulus and Julian.

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