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Births: Caligula, Roman emperor, 12; Jahangir, Mogul emperor, 1569; Charles Turner, engraver, 1774; Pierre-Jules-Theophile Gautier, novelist and poet, 1811; Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, physicist, 1821; Charles James Lever, novelist, 1806; Elizabeth von Arnim (Mary Annette Beauchamp), novelist, 1866; Maria Montessori, educationist, 1870; Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands, 1880; Edwin DuBose Heyward, novelist and playwright, 1885; Friedrich Adolf Paneth, chemist, 1887; William 'Bombardier Billy' Wells, heavyweight boxer, 1889; Fredric March (Ernest Frederick McIntyre Bickel), actor, 1897; Roland Culver, actor, 1900; William Saroyan, author, 1908; Richard Basehart, actor, 1914; Alan Jay Lerner, author and lyricist, 1918.

Deaths: Henry V, King, 1422; John Bunyan, author, 1688; Sir Arthur Phillip, first Governor of New South Wales, 1814; Ferdinand Lassalle (Lassal), socialist, killed in a duel 1864; Charles- Pierre Baudelaire, poet, 1867; Sir Thomas Henry Hall Caine, novelist, 1931; Harley Granville Barker, actor, playwright and critic, 1946; Georges Braque, painter, 1963; Rocky Marciano (Rocco Marchegiano), heavyweight boxer, killed in an air crash 1969; John Ford (Sean O'Feeney), film director, 1973; Norman Eric Kirk, prime minister of New Zealand 1974; Urho Kaleva Kekkonen, president of Finland, 1986; Henry Moore, sculptor, 1986.

On this day: Henry VI acceded as King at the age of nine months, 1422; at the Battle of Flores, Sir Richard Grenville engaged the whole Spanish Fleet in the Revenge, but was captured and later died, 1591; Mary Anne 'Polly' Nichols, a prostitute, was found dead in Whitechapel, London, the first victim of Jack the Ripper, 1888; the musical show Chu Chin Chow was first performed, London, 1916; Kurt Weill's opera Die Dreigroschenoper was first performed, Berlin 1928; women and children were evacuated from London, 1939; Trinidad and Tobago became independent, 1962; the Soviet Union shot down a South Korean airliner, killing 269 people aboard, 1983; over 1,000 people died in a tropical storm in the Philippines, 1984.

Today is the Feast Day of St Aidan of Lindisfarne, St Paulinus of Trier, St Raymond Nonnatus and The Servite Martyrs of Prague.