Anniversaries

Births: Jean-Franois Millet, painter, 1642; Edward Gibbon, historian, author of Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1737; Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, author and women's rights champion, 1759; Andreas Jakob Romberg, violinist and composer, 1767; Charles Robert Cockerell, architect, 1788; Samuel Finlay Breese Morse, inventor of the Morse Code, 1791; Abraham Louis Niedermeyer, composer and educationist, 1802; Friedrich, Freiherr von Flotow, composer, 1812; Herbert Spencer, philosopher, 1820; Ulysses Simpson Grant, general and 18th US President, 1822; Edward Whymper, mountaineer and artist, 1840; Albert von Keller, painter, 1844; Maurice Baring, novelist, playwright and poet, 1874; Wallace Carothers, chemist and developer of nylon, 1896; Ludwig Bemelmans, juvenile author and illustrator, 1898; Cecil Day Lewis, poet and novelist, 1904.

Deaths: Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, 1404; Ferdinand Magellan, navigator, killed by Philippine natives, 1521; Gerrit van Honthorst, painter, 1656; Jan Josephszoon van Goyen, landscape painter, 1656; Theodore III, Tsar of Russia, 1682; James Bruce, explorer, 1794; Sir William Jones, orientalist, 1794; Thomas Stothard, painter and illustrator, 1834; William Charles Macready, actor-manager, 1873; Emile de Girardin, political journalist, 1881; Ralph Waldo Emerson, author, 1882; Henry Hobson Richardson, architect, 1886; Alexander Nikolaievich Scriabin, composer and pianist, 1915; Harold Hart Crane, poet, committed suicide 1932; Kwame Nkrumah, former president of Ghana, 1972.

On this day: the English defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar, 1296; the Allies - Austrians and Russians - defeated the French at the Battle of Cassano, and extinguished the Cisalpine Republic, 1799; the US forces captured Toronto (York), 1813; the Order of St Michael and St George was founded, 1817; the London Zoological Gardens in Regent's Park opened, 1828; Christina Rossetti, aged 12, produced her first book of poems, 1842; 1,450 people died when the Sultana steamboat exploded on the Mississippi, 1865; Gounod's opera Romeo and Juliet was first performed, Paris 1867; Abdul Hamid II, Sultan of Turkey, was overthrown by Young Turks and was succeeded by Mohammed V, 1909; it was stated that Germany would have to pay £650m reparations for damage done by her forces in the First World War, 1921; the Carlton Theatre, London (now a cinema), opened, 1927; the Piccadilly Theatre, London, opened, 1928; Guernica, northern Spain, was destroyed in bombing by German aircraft, 1937; it was announced that men aged 20-21 would be conscripted, 1939; German troops occupied Athens, 1941; Britain recognised the state of Israel, 1950; Georgi Malenkov became leader in the Soviet Union, 1954; Sierra Leone became independent, 1961.

Today is the Feast Day of St Anthimus of Nicomedia, St Asicus or Tassach, Saints Castor and Stephen, St Floribert of Lige, St Maughold or Maccul, St Zita.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: Office Manager

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: Have you been doing a brilliant job in an admi...

Surrey County Council: Senior Project Officer (Fixed Term to Feb 2019)

£26,498 - £31,556: Surrey County Council: We are looking for an outgoing, conf...

Recruitment Genius: Interim Head of HR

£50000 - £60000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Are you an innovative, senior H...

Recruitment Genius: Human Resources and Payroll Administrator

£20000 - £22000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Our client, a very well respect...

Day In a Page

HIV pill: Scientists hail discovery of 'game-changer' that cuts the risk of infection among gay men by 86%

Scientists hail daily pill that protects against HIV infection

Breakthrough in battle against global scourge – but will the NHS pay for it?
How we must adjust our lifestyles to nature: Welcome to the 'Anthropocene', the human epoch

Time to play God

Welcome to the 'Anthropocene', the human epoch where we may need to redefine nature itself
MacGyver returns, but with a difference: Handyman hero of classic 1980s TV series to be recast as a woman

MacGyver returns, but with a difference

Handyman hero of classic 1980s TV series to be recast as a woman
Tunnel renaissance: Why cities are hiding roads down in the ground

Tunnel renaissance

Why cities are hiding roads underground
'Backstreet Boys - Show 'Em What You're Made Of': An affectionate look at five middle-aged men

Boys to men

The Backstreet Boys might be middle-aged, married and have dodgy knees, but a heartfelt documentary reveals they’re not going gently into pop’s good night
Crufts 2015: Should foreign dogs be allowed to compete?

Crufts 2015

Should foreign dogs be allowed to compete?
10 best projectors

How to make your home cinema more cinematic: 10 best projectors

Want to recreate the big-screen experience in your sitting room? IndyBest sizes up gadgets to form your film-watching
Manchester City 1 Barcelona 2 player ratings: Luis Suarez? Lionel Messi? Joe Hart? Who was the star man?

Manchester City vs Barcelona player ratings

Luis Suarez? Lionel Messi? Joe Hart? Who was the star man at the Etihad?
Arsenal vs Monaco: Monaco - the making of Gunners' manager Arsene Wenger

Monaco: the making of Wenger

Jack Pitt-Brooke speaks to former players and learns the Frenchman’s man-management has always been one of his best skills
Cricket World Cup 2015: Chris Gayle - the West Indies' enigma lives up to his reputation

Chris Gayle: The West Indies' enigma

Some said the game's eternal rebel was washed up. As ever, he proved he writes the scripts by producing a blistering World Cup innings
In Ukraine a dark world of hybrid warfare and murky loyalties prevails

In Ukraine a dark world of hybrid warfare

This war in the shadows has been going on since the fall of Mr Yanukovych
'Birdman' and 'Bullets Over Broadway': Homage or plagiarism?

Homage or plagiarism?

'Birdman' shares much DNA with Woody Allen's 'Bullets Over Broadway'
Broadchurch ends as damp squib not even David Tennant can revive

A damp squib not even David Tennant can revive

Broadchurch, Series 2 finale, review
A Koi carp breeding pond, wall-mounted iPads and a bathroom with a 'wellness' shower: inside the mansion of Germany's 'Bishop of Bling'

Inside the mansion of Germany's 'Bishop of Bling'

A Koi carp breeding pond, wall-mounted iPads and a bathroom with a 'wellness' shower