Click to follow
The Independent Online

Births: Edward Jenner, surgeon and discoverer of vaccination, 1749; Anna Brownell Jameson, author, 1794; Robert Smith Surtees, novelist, 1803; Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, astronomer, 1836; Erik Satie (Alfred Erik Leslie- Satie), composer, 1866; Henri Barbusse, editor and novelist, 1873; Dorothy Miller Richardson, novelist, 1873; Dennis Christopher George Potter, playwright and scriptwriter, 1935.

Deaths: Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano dei Filipepi), painter, 1510; Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1575; Cornelis de Heem, painter, 1695; Catherine I, Empress of Russia, 1727; Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Prigord, statesman, 1838; Lydia Estes Pinkham, patent- medicine manufacturer, 1883; Timothy Cole, wood engraver, 1931; John Selwyn Brooke Selwyn-Lloyd, former Speaker of the House of Commons, 1978; Margaret Hamilton, actress, 1985.

On this day: Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette set out to explore the Mississippi, 1673; Frederick the Great, Emperor of Prussia, was victorious against the Austrians at the Battles of Czaslau and Chotusitz, 1742; the Revised Version of the New Testament was issued, 1881; the first regular weekly comic paper, Comic Cuts, was issued by Alfred Harmsworth, 1890; Mascagni's opera Cavalleria Rusticana was first performed, Rome, 1890; the foundation stone of the Victoria and Albert Museum was laid by Queen Victoria, 1899; Mafeking, under siege by the Boers, was relieved by Colonel Plumer, 1900; the first London production of the operetta The Marriage Market was presented, 1913; the first flight by KLM (Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij) was made, 1920; Chiang Kai-shek was made supreme war lord in Canton, 1926; Germany invaded France, 1940; the United States Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, 1954.

Today is the Feast Day of St Bruno of Wrzburg, St Madron or Madern and St Paschal Baylon.