Anniversaries

TODAY

Births: Gerard de Nerval (Gerard Labrunie), poet and writer, 1808; Wilhelm Richard Wagner, composer, 1813; Sir Aston Webb, architect, 1849; Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, novelist, 1859; Daniel Francois Malan, politician, 1874; Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, mining magnate, 1880; Giacomo Matteotti, politician, 1885; Thomas Edward Neil Driberg, Baron Bradwell, politician and journalist, 1905; Laurence Kerr, Baron Olivier, actor and director, 1907.

Deaths: Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor, 337; Maria Edgeworth, novelist, 1849; Alessandro Francesco Manzoni, poet, 1873; Victor-Marie Hugo, author, 1885; Gaetano Bresci, assassin of King Umberto I, committed suicide while in prison 1901; Sir John Denton Pinkstone French, first Earl of Ypres, soldier, 1925; Augusta, Lady Gregory, poet, playwright and theatre director, 1932; Cecil Day Lewis, poet and author, 1972; Rajiv Gandhi, former Indian prime minister, assassinated 1991.

On this day: Louis VIII of France invaded England, landing at Stonor, 1216; the Lancastrians defeated the Yorkists at the Battle of St Albans, 1455; the title 'baronet' was created when James I ennobled 18 men, 1611; 'Great Paul', a new bell for St Paul's Cathedral, arrived in London, 1882; the Blackwall Tunnel under the Thames was officially opened, 1897; the Strand Theatre, London, opened, 1905; Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence, his wife Emmeline and Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragists, were sentenced to nine months' imprisonment, 1912; Italy joined the Allies, 1915; after a troop train collided with a passenger train at Quintin's Hill, near Gretna Green, 227 people were killed and over 200 injured, 1915; the Battle of Anzio started, 1944; the Organisation of African Unity was formed in Addis Ababa, 1963; fire swept a large department store in Brussels, killing 300 people, 1967; Ceylon changed its named to Sri Lanka and became a republic, 1972; an earthquake lasting 20 seconds destroyed the small town of Bingol, in Turkey, when over 1,000 people died, 1972.

Today is the Feast Day of St Aigulf of Ayoul or Bourges, Saints Castus and Aemilius, St Helen of Caernarvon, St Humility, St Joachima de Mas, St Julia of Corsica, St Quiteria, St Rita (Margarita) of Cascia and St Romanus.

TOMORROW

Births: Elias Ashmole, antiquarian, 1617; Carolus Linnaeus, botanist, 1707; William Hunter, obstetrician and medical writer, 1718; Franz Anton Mesmer, physician, 1734; Giovanni Battista Viotti, violinist and composer, 1753; Andrea Appiani, fresco painter, 1754; Sir Charles Barry, architect, 1795; Thomas Hood, poet and humorist, 1799; Manuel John Johnson, astronomer, 1805; Jozef Wieniawski, pianist and composer, 1837; Otto Lilienthal, pioneer aviator, 1848; Leo Baeck, rabbi and theologian, 1873; Douglas Fairbanks (Douglas Elton Thomas Ulman), actor, 1883; Par Fabian Lagerkvist, novelist and poet, 1891; Dr Edmund Rubbra, composer, 1901; John Bardeen, physicist, an inventor of the transistor, 1908.

Deaths: Girolamo Savonarola, priest and reformer, strangled and burnt at the stake 1498; Captain William Kidd, naval officer, pirate and murderer, hanged in London 1701; John Wood, architect and town planner, 1754; James Otis, American lawyer, 1783; William Woollett, engraver, 1785; Albert Richard Smith, author and lecturer, 1860; Kit Carson, frontiersman, 1881; Leopold von Ranke, historian, 1881; Henrik Johan Ibsen, playwright, 1906; Jimmy McHugh, popular composer, 1969.

On this day: Joan of Arc was taken prisoner by the English, 1430; King Henry VIII was divorced from Catherine, 1533; the Defenestration of Prague took place, beginning the Thirty Years' War, 1618; the British Parliament agreed a plan for the independence of Palestine, but this was denounced by both Arabs and Jews, 1939; the decoration of the George Cross was inaugurated, 1939.

Tomorrow is the Feast Day of St Aldhelm, St Desiderius of Vienne, St Euphrosyne of Polotsk, St Guibert, St Ivo of Chartres, St John Baptist dei Rossi, St Leontius of Rostov and St William of Rochester.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
SPONSORED FEATURES
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Ashdown Group: Human Resources Manager

£28000 - £35000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: A successful organisation...

Recruitment Genius: Internal Recruiter - Manufacturing

£20000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: An Internal Recruiter (manufact...

Ashdown Group: HR Manager (CIPD) - Barking / East Ham - £50-55K

£50000 - £55000 per annum + 25 days holidays & benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Man...

Recruitment Genius: Operations / Project Manager

£40000 - £48000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This software company specialis...

Day In a Page

Isis profits from destruction of antiquities by selling relics to dealers - and then blowing up the buildings they come from to conceal the evidence of looting

How Isis profits from destruction of antiquities

Robert Fisk on the terrorist group's manipulation of the market to increase the price of artefacts
Labour leadership: Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea

'If we lose touch we’ll end up with two decades of the Tories'

In an exclusive interview, Andy Burnham urges Jeremy Corbyn voters to think again in last-minute plea
Tunisia fears its Arab Spring could be reversed as the new regime becomes as intolerant of dissent as its predecessor

The Arab Spring reversed

Tunisian protesters fear that a new law will whitewash corrupt businessmen and officials, but they are finding that the new regime is becoming as intolerant of dissent as its predecessor
King Arthur: Legendary figure was real and lived most of his life in Strathclyde, academic claims

Academic claims King Arthur was real - and reveals where he lived

Dr Andrew Breeze says the legendary figure did exist – but was a general, not a king
Who is Oliver Bonas and how has he captured middle-class hearts?

Who is Oliver Bonas?

It's the first high-street store to pay its staff the living wage, and it saw out the recession in style
Earth has 'lost more than half its trees' since humans first started cutting them down

Axe-wielding Man fells half the world’s trees – leaving us just 422 each

However, the number of trees may be eight times higher than previously thought
60 years of Scalextric: Model cars are now stuffed with as much tech as real ones

60 years of Scalextric

Model cars are now stuffed with as much tech as real ones
Theme parks continue to draw in thrill-seekers despite the risks - so why are we so addicted?

Why are we addicted to theme parks?

Now that Banksy has unveiled his own dystopian version, Christopher Beanland considers the ups and downs of our endless quest for amusement
Tourism in Iran: The country will soon be opening up again after years of isolation

Iran is opening up again to tourists

After years of isolation, Iran is reopening its embassies abroad. Soon, there'll be the chance for the adventurous to holiday there
10 best PS4 games

10 best PS4 games

Can’t wait for the new round of blockbusters due out this autumn? We played through last year’s offering
Transfer window: Ten things we learnt

Ten things we learnt from the transfer window

Record-breaking spending shows FFP restraint no longer applies
Migrant crisis: UN official Philippe Douste-Blazy reveals the harrowing sights he encountered among refugees arriving on Lampedusa

‘Can we really just turn away?’

Dead bodies, men drowning, women miscarrying – a senior UN figure on the horrors he has witnessed among migrants arriving on Lampedusa, and urges politicians not to underestimate our caring nature
Nine of Syria and Iraq's 10 world heritage sites are in danger as Isis ravages centuries of history

Nine of Syria and Iraq's 10 world heritage sites are in danger...

... and not just because of Isis vandalism
Girl on a Plane: An exclusive extract of the novelisation inspired by the 1970 Palestinian fighters hijack

Girl on a Plane

An exclusive extract of the novelisation inspired by the 1970 Palestinian fighters hijack
Why Frederick Forsyth's spying days could spell disaster for today's journalists

Why Frederick Forsyth's spying days could spell disaster for today's journalists

The author of 'The Day of the Jackal' has revealed he spied for MI6 while a foreign correspondent