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Births: John Tradescant the Younger, horticulturist, 1608; Percy Bysshe Shelley, poet, 1792; The Rev Edward Irving, Presbyterian minister and theologian, 1793; Josef Proksch, music teacher and composer, 1794; Georges-Maurice de Guerin de Cayla, poet, 1810; Ernst Kossak, philogist and journalist, 1814; Arthur Haygarth, cricketer, 1825; Domenico Morelli, painter, 1826; Walter Horatio Pater, essayist and critic, 1839; William Henry Hudson, writer and naturalist, 1841; Knut Hamsun (Pederson), writer, 1859; Sir Harry Lauder (MacLennan), comedian, 1870; Sir Osbert Lancaster, artist, cartoonist and writer, 1908.

Deaths: Henry I, King of France, 1060; Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, killed in battle at Evesham 1265; Sebastian, King of Portugal, killed in battle 1578; Thomas Stucley, adventurer, killed in battle 1578; William Cecil, first Baron Burghley, statesman, 1598; John Burgoyne, military commander and playwright, 1792; John Bacon, sculptor, 1799; Jean-Baptist Vianney, priest, 1859; Hans Christian Andersen, writer of fairy tales, 1875; Giovanni Muzzioli, painter, 1894; Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, chemist, inventor of the gas mantle, 1929; William Babington Maxwell, novelist, 1938; Pearl White, silent-movie serial queen, 1938; James Cruze, film director, 1942; Rodney ('Gypsy') Smith, evangelist, 1947; Roy Herbert Thomson, first Baron Thomson of Fleet, newspaper publisher, 1976; Edgar Douglas Adrian, first Baron Adrian, physiologist, 1977.

On this day: the Barons were defeated by Prince Edward at the Battle of Evesham, 1265; Malacca was captured by Alfonso de Albuquerque, 1511; the Portuguese were defeated by the Moors at the Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir (Alcazarquivir), 1578; the duty on newspaper advertisements was repealed in Britain, 1853; Lord Wantage founded the British Red Cross Society, 1870; Giuseppe Sarto was elected as Pope Pius X, 1903; Belgium was invaded by Germany, 1914; Britain declared war on Germany, 1914; President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed the neutrality of the United States, 1914; Trebitsch Lincoln, a former British MP, was arrested for forgery in New York, 1915; the second battle of the Marne ended, 1918; Kenya, the Sudan and British Somaliland were invaded by Italy, 1940; President Idi Amin of Uganda ordered the expulsion of about 40,000 Asians, 1972.

Today is the Feast Day of St Ia, St John-Baptist Vianney, St Molua or Lughaidh, St Sezni.