Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Anniversaries

Births: Josiah Wedgwood, potter, 1730; Thomas Guthrie, founder of ''Ragged Schools'', 1803; Claude Bernard, physiologist, 1813; Ludwig Molitor, composer, 1817; Henry David Thoreau, author and naturalist, 1817; Edwin Longsden Long, painter, 1829; Karl Heinrich Barth, teacher and pianist, 1847; Sir William Osler, physician, 1849; George Eastman, photographic pioneer, 1854; Anton Stepanovich Arensky, composer, 1861; Charles Cottet, landscape painter, 1863; Stefan George, poet, 1868; Frederick Edwin Smith, first Earl of Birkenhead, statesman, 1872; Amedeo Modigliani, painter and sculptor, 1884; George Butterworth, composer, 1885; Oscar Hammerstein II, lyricist and author, 1895; Kirsten Flagstad, operatic singer, 1895; Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto), poet and diplomat, 1904; Yul Brynner (Youl Bryner), film actor, 1915. Deaths: Jack (John) Cade, English rebel leader, 1450; Desiderius Erasmus, scholar, 1536; Jean Picard, astronomer, 1682; Titus Oates, impostor and conspirator, 1705; Alexander Hamilton, statesman, 1804; Henrik Arnold Thaulow Wergeland, poet, 1845; Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, writer, 1846; Robert Stevenson, lighthouse engineer, 1850; Charles Stewart Rolls, aviator and automobile manufacturer, killed 1910; Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell, traveller and archaeologist, 1926; Ferguson Wright Hume (Fergus Hume), novelist, 1932; Charles Frederick Goldie, artist, 1947; Douglas Hyde, poet, historian and first president of the Irish Republic, 1949; Joseph Jongen, composer, 1953; Mazo de la Roche, novelist, 1961; Kenneth More, actor, 1982. On this day: the Armada set sail from Spain, 1588; Crimea was evacuated, 1856; Victoria Embankment, London, was opened by the Prince of Wales, 1870; Britain took possession of Cyprus, 1878; Alfred Dreyfus was pardoned, his sentence quashed, and he was restored to his regiment, 1906; 500 lives were lost when the Japanese battleship Kawachi blew up in Tokuyama Bay, 1918; the musical Bitter Sweet was first performed, 1929; the Anglo-Soviet agreement was signed in Moscow, 1941; Thor Heyerdahl and a crew of seven crossed the Atlantic from Morocco to Barbados in 57 days, using a papyrus boat, 1970; Sao Tome and Principe became independent, 1975; Reed International agreed to sell the Mirror Group newspapers to Robert Maxwell's Pergamon Press, 1984. Today is the Feast Day of St Felix, Saints Hermagoras and Fortunatus, St Jason, St John Gualbert, St John Jones, St John the Iberian, St Veronica.

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