Anniversaries

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The Independent Online
Anniversaries

Births: James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, 1649; Theobald Bohm, flautist and composer, 1794; Giuditta Pasta (Negri), soprano, 1798; Isambard Kingdom Brunel, engineer, 1806; Charles-Pierre Baudelaire, poet, 1821; Leopold II, King of the Belgians, 1835; Sir Francesco Paolo Tosti, composer, 1847; Sir Charles Holroyd, painter and etcher, 1861; Erich Friedrich Wilhelm von Ludendorff, general and politician, 1865; Charles Proteus Steinmetz, electrical engineer, 1865; Leon Blum, statesman, 1872; Sir Gerald Festus Kelly, artist, 1879; Efrem Zimbalist, violinist, 1889; Paul Bustill Robeson, actor and singer, 1898; Ward Bond, actor, 1903; Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell, statesman, 1906; Victor Vasarely, Op Art painter, 1908; Sir Robert Murray Helpmann, dancer, 1909. Deaths: Edward IV, King of England, 1483; Lorenzo de' Medici ("The Magnificent"), statesman, 1492; Francois Rabelais, author, 1553; Francis Bacon, Viscount St Albans, statesman, 1626; Simon Fraser, 12th Baron Lovat, Jacobite, last man to be beheaded in England 1747; Jacques Necker, financier and statesman, 1804; John Opie, infant prodigy, painter and illustrator, 1807; Dante Gabriel Rossetti, poet and Pre-Raphaelite painter, 1882; Isabella II, Queen of Spain, 1904; Charles Conder, artist, 1909; Edward Thomas, poet, killed in action, 1917; Mrs Patrick Campbell (Beatrice Stella Tanner), actress, 1940; Dietrich Bonhoeffer, theologian, executed 1945; Frank Lloyd Wright, architect, 1959; Sir Basil Henry Blackwell, bookseller and publisher, 1984. On this day: the Mongol armies defeated the Poles and Germans at the Battle of Liegnitz (Wahlstatt), 1241; Botany Bay, Australia, was discovered by Captain James Cook, 1770; the National Gallery, London, was opened, 1838; General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysees S. Grant at Appomattox, ending the American Civil War, 1865; the Hudson Bay Company agreed to cede its territorial rights to Canada, 1869; the world's first full-length colour film, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, a British production, was shown at the Holborn Empire, London, 1914; Latvia proclaimed her independence, 1918; Germany invaded Norway and Denmark, 1940; the USS Liberty exploded in Bari harbour, Italy, killing 360 people, 1945; the Suez Canal was cleared for all shipping, 1957. Today is the Feast Day of St Gaucherius, St Hugh of Rouen, St Mary Cleophas, St Uramar and St Waldetrudis or Waudru.

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