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Births: Richard III, King of England, 1452; Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, anthropologist, 1832; Hans Thoma, painter, 1839; Paul Ludwig Hans von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, field marshal and president, 1847; Ferdinand Foch, Marshal of France, 1851; Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian leader, 1869; Wallace Stevens, poet, 1879; Julius ''Groucho'' Marx, comedian and actor, 1890; Budd Abbot, comedian, 1895; Ignatius Roy Dunnachie Campbell, poet, 1901; Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, statesman, 1904; Henry Graham Greene, novelist, 1904. Deaths: Benoit Audran, artist and engraver, 1721; John Andre, English army officer, executed by George Washington for spying 1780; Admiral August Keppel, first Viscount, naval commander and politician, 1786; Max Bruch, composer, 1920; Svante August Arrhenius, chemist, 1927; Sir Thomas Johnstone Lipton, sportsman and merchant, 1931; Marie Stopes, birth control pioneer, 1958; Marcel Duchamp (Henri-Pierre Roche), Surrealist painter, 1968; Katharine Susannah Prichard, novelist, 1969; Paavo Nurmi, athlete, 1973; Rock Hudson (Roy Fitzgerald Scherer), film actor, 1985; Sir Peter Brian Medawar, medical scientist, 1987. On this day: Saladin, Prince of the Kurds, entered Jerusalem, 1187; the British navy defeated the French at the second Battle of Cape Finisterre, 1747; Rome became the capital city of Italy, 1870; the first Royal Naval submarine was launched at Barrow, 1901; the first rugby football match was played at Twickenham, 1909; Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was invaded by Italy, 1935; a new island appeared off Fayal Island, Azores, with a volcano at the centre, 1957; Guinea became an independent republic, 1958; Neil Kinnock became leader of the Labour Party, 1983. Today is the Feast Day of St Eleutherius of Nicomedia, The Guardian Angels and St Leger or Leodegarius.


Victoria and Albert Museum: Elizabeth McMurray, "At Home in the 1930s: the EKCO collections of trade catalogues", 2.30pm.

Gray's Inn

The following have been elected Masters of the Bench of Gray's Inn:

Judge Nina Lowry; Mr Michael Lawrence Saunders; Miss Hilary Heilbron QC; Mr Michael Newman Howard QC; Mr John Hendy QC.


Sir Bernard Caulfield, of Ingleby, Lincoln, Judge of the High Court of Justice (Queen's Bench Division) 1968-89, left estate valued at pounds 323,422 net.

The Hon Kenneth Henry Lowry Lamb, of London SW7, Head of Religious Broadcasting at the BBC 1963-66, left estate valued at pounds 233,483 net.

Dr Michael Scott Montague Fordham, of Jordans, Buckinghamshire, psychologist and founding chairman of the Society of Analytical Psychology, left estate valued at pounds 334,156 net.