Benjamin Netanyahu, who has been Prime Minister since 2009, swept to a surprise victory on Tuesday.
Here are the things that have defined the rule of the man nicknamed Bibi. Fingers crossed Israel's prepared for more of the same.
Fractious US relations
Tricky US-Israeli relations came to a head earlier this month when the Israeli PM gave a speech to Congress and Barack Obama declined to attend. Netanyhau alluded to the difficult relationship between the countries in February 2015, saying: "When the issue at hand is our very existence, what is expected of a prime minister? Should he bow down and accept the danger for the sake of a relationship?”
The pair have never seen eye-to-eye over the Palestine question, with Obama having pledged in 2008 to work on the issue from "the minute I'm sworn into office" and Obama and Vice President Joe Biden both opposing Israel building settlements outside of the boundaries agreed by the 1967 borders.
Wife's phone rant
Sara Netanyahu was thrust into the centre of the election campaign after an alleged transcript of a phonecall from summer 2014 was released. In it, a woman alleged to be Netanyahu is said to have accused a political rival's wife of jealousy and allegedly ranting: "Where is your man? He doesn’t even reach the ankles of my husband" and "your man just babbles and babbles. He is jealous of him [Netanyahu] because he’s a million times smarter than him, because he’s a million times more successful, because he’s a giant of a leader!"
The alleged conversation between Monique Ben Melekh (Eli Moyal's wife) and Sara Netanyahu was written up by Israeli journalist Ben Caspit after he allegedly heard the tape. Netanyahu has spoken out about media smears against herself and her husband in the wake of the claims.
Illegal building in the West Bank
Which brings us neatly on to the controversy that has dogged Netanyahu's premiership concerning repeated failures to recognise the constraints of Israeli-Palestinian borders. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon described October 2014 plans to build new settlements as a "clear violation of international law".
Philip Hammond, the UK's foreign secretary, called a September 2014 land grab in the West Bank near Gvaot "particularly ill-judged". However, Netanyahu has stood fast on the building, saying at Davos in 2015: "I have no intention of evacuating any settlement or uprooting any Israelis." Other Israeli politicians have argued that it is recompense for the war with Gaza over the summer.
Former cabinet minister Ephraim Sneh argued that the settlements are an important political ploy, saying: "He poked the [Obama] Administration in the eye on settlements just to appease right-wingers."
In pictures: Israel election
In pictures: Israel election
1/21 Israel election
Benjamin Netanyahu prays at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem following Likud's victory in Israel's general election
2/21 Israel election
The motorcade carrying Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu drives across the plaza before the Western Wall in Jerusalem's Old City
3/21 Israel election
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu kisses his wife Sara as he claims victory in Tel Aviv
4/21 Israel election
Isaac Herzog, right, and Tzipi Livni of the Zionist Union party make statements in their headquarters on their party's future role following its decisive loss in the Israeli general election
5/21 Israel election
Co-leader of the Zionist Union party, Israeli Labour Party leader Isaac Herzog, delivers a speech as he reacts to exit poll figures, in Tel Aviv
6/21 Israel election
Supporters of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu celebrate as election results come in at his election campaign headquarters in Tel Aviv
7/21 Israel election
Supporters of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's Likud party react to exit poll figures
8/21 Israel election
Likud Party supporters celebrate after the exit polls were announced, at the party's headquarters in Tel Aviv
9/21 Israel election
A screen displays exit poll results showing Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin's Netanyahu Likud party and Isaac Herzog's centre-left Zionist Union neck-and-neck, in Tel Aviv
10/21 Israel election
Copies of ballot papers and campaign posters for Benjamin Netanyahu's Likud Party lie on the ground in the aftermath of the country's parliamentary elections
11/21 Israel election
Vandalized posters of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu near a polling station in the West Bank Jewish settlement of Kiryat Arba, near Hebron
12/21 Israel election
A woman waves an Israeli national flag outside a polling station in Tel Aviv
13/21 Israel election
Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu casts his ballot for the parliamentary election at a polling station in Jerusalem
14/21 Israel election
Israeli MP and chairperson of center-right Yesh Atid party, Yair Lapid, takes a selfie with his wife Lihi (R) and his supporters, outside a polling station in Tel Aviv
15/21 Israel election
Ultra orthodox Jews line up to vote in Bnei Brak
16/21 Israel election
Israeli Arab political leader and head of a joint list of Arab parties, Ayman Odeh, casts his ballot with his children at a polling station in the coastal city oh Haifa
17/21 Israel election
Isaac Herzog (standing in foreground on L), co-leader of the centre-left Zionist Union party, poses next to his wife Michal as he casts his vote for the parliamentary election at a polling station in Tel Aviv
18/21 Israel election
An ultra-Orthodox Jewish man casts his ballot at a polling station in Jerusalem
19/21 Israel election
An Israeli ceections committee worker prepare ballots at a polling station for the Israeli general elections in the city of Haifa
20/21 Israel election
A supporter of the ultra-Orthodox Shas party, or Sephardic Torah Guardians, holds a campaign poster depicting the party's spiritual leader Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, in Bnei Brak near Tel Aviv. Israel's Sephardic community, Jews of Middle Eastern descent, have traditionally been the Likud party's backbone. But political analysts say Sephardim may throw their support elsewhere in the March 17 election, angry over the high cost of living and housing prices
21/21 Israel election
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, center, visits a construction site in Har Homa, east Jerusalem, a day ahead of legislative elections. Netanyahu is seeking his fourth term as prime minister
The war, also referred to as "Operation Protective Edge" also garnered criticism for Netanyahu. The PM described the 50-day war in summer 2014 as "justified" and "proportional". The UN estimates that 2,100 Palestinians, 66 Israeli soldiers and seven Israeli civilians were killed in the conflict.
Left-leaning Israeli newspaper Haaretz argued that the war, in which Palestinian organisation Hamas failed to be eradicated, meant that Netanyahu had some good PR to do.
"It’s not only Gaza that has to be restored and reconstructed," the paper stated. "So does Netanyahu’s image, which was fashioned with such effort over a period of decades, portraying him as the leader capable of dealing with terrorism, the man who would subdue Hamas and bring it to its knees."
Benjamin and Sara Netanyahu's former housekeeper, Meni Naftali, is suing the couple for £110,000, claiming that Sara was offensive in her dealings with him. Naftali claims that she called him a "bad housekeeper" and chastisted him for having flowers that were a day old in their house. He also claimed that the PM's wife was pocketing money from recycling bottles. The Netanyahus deny all claims and Sara Netanyahu has called the allegations “totally baseless,” adding “Naftali is simply trying to discredit me.”
Cost of living
Cost of living
The 2011 social justice protests, in which people pitched tents in the streets of Tel Aviv, were just the start of problems. The high cost of housing and the perceived deterioration of the health system could well swing the election against Netanyahu, as 56 per cent of Israelis have said they will be voting on socioeconomic issues.
Earlier this month, the Central Bureau of Statistics found that more than 41 per cent of Israelis are constantly in their overdraft, with over 50 per cent of respondents blaming the high cost of housing.
Despite previously promising "historic compromise" with Palestinians in 2013, Netanyahu pledged that he would not permit Palestine to become a state once more just before the polls opened.
"I think that anyone who goes about establishing a Palestinian state today and vacating territory is giving attack territory to extremist Islam to be used against the state of Israel," he said on Tuesday. "That is the real reality that has been created here in recent years. Whoever ignores this is putting his head in the sand."
This was criticised by some as a last-minute bid for right-wing votes. As Netanyahu's Likud party had four seats fewer than Zionist Union party, it's thought that the PM attempted to bring in voters from the Jewish Home party, which wants to annex land from the West Bank. The party lost four seats in this week's elections.Reuse content