Increased floor area was within permission

LAW REPORT v 14 June 1995

Regina v Secretary of State for the Environment, Ex parte Slough Borough Council Court of Appeal (Lord Justice Stuart-Smith, Lord Justice Morritt and Lord Justice Ward) 19 May 1995

It is not permissible to construe the scope of planning permission which is unambiguous and valid on its face by reference to the application for planning permission. Therefore if outline planning permission is silent on floor-size restrictions, a proposed floor area which is substantially larger than that referred to in the application is within the terms of the outline permission granted.

The Court of Appeal dismissed the council's appeal against Mr Justice Schiemann's dismissal of the council's application for judicial review of a planning inspector's decision that a developer's proposal was within the terms of outline planning permission.

The council wished to sell an old petrol station site with the benefit of planning permission for development. Its application for outline permission stated that the additional floor space created was 1,055 square metres. The planning permission, which referred to the application number, authorised the development without reference to floor space.

The site was sold to a developer who applied for planning permission, referring to the matters reserved in the outline permission and stated that the additional floor space was 1,530 square metres. The council was not prepared to approve the 45-per-cent increase in floor area. A planning inspector decided that the increased floor area did not fall outside the terms of the outline planning permission granted.

The council applied to quash that decision.

Brian Ash QC and Paul Stinchcombe (Council solicitor) for the council; Rabinder Singh (Treasury Solicitor) for the Secretary of State.

Lord Justice Stuart-Smith, giving the court's judgment, said that the permission was clear, unambiguous and valid on its face; apart from the reference number, there was no mention of the application.

The general rule was that, in construing a planning permission, regard might be had only to the permission itself, including the reasons stated for it: Miller-Mead v Minister of Housing and Local Government [1963] 2 QB 196. It was submitted that the reasoning for that general rule was that the application had not been available, but that since 1988 it was available and therefore the rule should go.

There was nothing to suggest that the change in 1988 was for the purpose of altering the rule. The rule was affirmed in the House of Lords in Slough Estates Ltd v Slough BC [1971] AC 958. A breach of planning permission might lead to criminal sanctions. The public should be able to rely on a document that was plain on its face without being required to consider whether there was any discrepancy between the permission and the application.

Turning to the submission that the council could not grant substantially more than was applied for, the court could not see how want of authority or jurisdiction could affect the construction of the permission which was plain on its face. Whether an enlargement of the application site was so substantial that it would deprive those who should have been consulted of an opportunity to make representations was a decision which could only be challenged on well-known principles applicable to judicial review.

If the validity of the permission was to be challenged, such challenge must be made promptly, otherwise the permission was taken to be valid. The time for challenge in this case had long since passed.

The general rule stated in Miller-Mead was well established. There were recognised exceptions to it. The first was where the planning permission incorporated by reference the application and accompanying plans, thus enabling those plans to be referred to. The second exception was where the permission was ambiguous on its face. A further exception arose where the validity of the planning permission was challenged on the grounds of want of authority or mistake.

The mere inclusion of the reference number of the application on the permission was not sufficient to inform a reasonable reader that the application formed part of the permission. Some such words as "in accordance with the plans and application" would be necessary. The appeal was dismissed.

Ying Hui Tan, Barrister

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR Manager

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: They are in need of a HR Manage...

h2 Recruit Ltd: Business Development Manager - HR Consultancy - £65,000 OTE

£35000 - £40000 per annum + £65,000 OTE: h2 Recruit Ltd: London, Birmingham, M...

Day In a Page

The week Hollywood got scared and had to grow up a bit

The week Hollywood got scared and had to grow up a bit

Sony suffered a chorus of disapproval after it withdrew 'The Interview', but it's not too late for it to take a stand, says Joan Smith
From Widow Twankey to Mother Goose, how do the men who play panto dames get themselves ready for the performance of a lifetime?

Panto dames: before and after

From Widow Twankey to Mother Goose, how do the men who play panto dames get themselves ready for the performance of a lifetime?
Thirties murder mystery novel is surprise runaway Christmas hit

Thirties murder mystery novel is surprise runaway Christmas hit

Booksellers say readers are turning away from dark modern thrillers and back to the golden age of crime writing
Anne-Marie Huby: 'Charities deserve the best,' says founder of JustGiving

Anne-Marie Huby: 'Charities deserve the best'

Ten million of us have used the JustGiving website to donate to good causes. Its co-founder says that being dynamic is as important as being kind
The botanist who hunts for giant trees at Kew Gardens

The man who hunts giants

A Kew Gardens botanist has found 25 new large tree species - and he's sure there are more out there
The 12 ways of Christmas: Spare a thought for those who will be working to keep others safe during the festive season

The 12 ways of Christmas

We speak to a dozen people who will be working to keep others safe, happy and healthy over the holidays
Birdwatching men have a lot in common with their feathered friends, new study shows

The male exhibits strange behaviour

A new study shows that birdwatching men have a lot in common with their feathered friends...
Diaries of Evelyn Waugh, Virginia Woolf and Noël Coward reveal how they coped with the December blues

Famous diaries: Christmas week in history

Noël Coward parties into the night, Alan Clark bemoans the cost of servants, Evelyn Waugh ponders his drinking…
From noble to narky, the fall of the open letter

From noble to narky, the fall of the open letter

The great tradition of St Paul and Zola reached its nadir with a hungry worker's rant to Russell Brand, says DJ Taylor
A Christmas ghost story by Alison Moore: A prodigal daughter has a breakthrough

A Christmas ghost story by Alison Moore

The story was published earlier this month in 'Poor Souls' Light: Seven Curious Tales'
Marian Keyes: The author on her pre-approved Christmas, true love's parking implications and living in the moment

Marian Keyes

The author on her pre-approved Christmas, true love's parking implications and living in the moment
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef creates an Italian-inspired fish feast for Christmas Eve

Bill Granger's Christmas Eve fish feast

Bill's Italian friends introduced him to the Roman Catholic custom of a lavish fish supper on Christmas Eve. Here, he gives the tradition his own spin…
Liverpool vs Arsenal: Brendan Rodgers is fighting for his reputation

Rodgers fights for his reputation

Liverpool manager tries to stay on his feet despite waves of criticism
Amir Khan: 'The Taliban can threaten me but I must speak out... innocent kids, killed over nothing. It’s sick in the mind'

Amir Khan attacks the Taliban

'They can threaten me but I must speak out... innocent kids, killed over nothing. It’s sick in the mind'
Michael Calvin: Sepp Blatter is my man of the year in sport. Bring on 2015, quick

Michael Calvin's Last Word

Sepp Blatter is my man of the year in sport. Bring on 2015, quick