Indian scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was born 158 years ago, and became a world leader in telecommunications with innumerable achievements to his name.
The polymath is the subject of a Google Doodle across the US, Australia, India and France to remember his contributions and celebrate his works.
The doodle shows the legendary scientist, who was known across the world, with the crescograph - an instrument he invented to measure growth in plants, and which he used to determine environmental effects on vegetation.
Here are five things you should know about Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose.
1. Learning Bengali sparked his interest in nature
Bose’s father sent him to a vernacular school in Munshiganj at a young age, because he believed his son should know his own mother tongue before learning English.
“I listened spellbound to stories of birds, animals and aquatic creatures. Perhaps these stories created in my mind a keen interest in investigating the workings of Nature,” Bose later told a conference at Bikrampur in 1915.
His father encouraged Bose to become a scholar, despite the poverty suffered by his family, and he left what is now Bangladesh at 18 to study natural science at Christ’s College, Cambridge.
Discoveries that change the way you see the world
Discoveries that change the way you see the world
1/30 Million-year-old human footprints discovered
Million-year-old human footprints have been discovered on the beach as Happisburgh, Norfolk
2/30 The world's oldest face
Scientists discovered the world’s oldest face, which belongs to this 419 million-year-old fish - an ancient sea predator that might also re-write the history of our evolution from the seas
3/30 Discovery of the ancient forest
Ancient forest revealed by storms. The recent huge storms and gale force winds that have battered the coast of West Wales have stripped away much of the sand from stretches of the beach between Borth and Ynyslas. The disappearing sands have revealed ancients forests, with the remains of oak trees dating back to the Bronze Age, 6,000 years ago. The ancient remains are said by some to be the origins of the legend of ‚Cantre‚r Gwealod‚ , a mythical kingdom now submerged under the waters pif Cardigan Bay
4/30 Bowhead whale genome, linked to cancer resistance, DNA damage repair and increased longevity, mapped by scientists
In a UK-based study, scientists working together with scientists in Alaska, Denmark, Ireland, Spain and South Korea successfully mapped the genome of the bowhead whale - the longest-living mammal - identifying a number of genes that are linked to cancer resistance, DNA damage repair and increased longevity
5/30 Researchers develop 'imaginary meal' pill
An 'imaginary meal' pill called fexaramine has been developed by researchers at the Salk's Gene Expression Laboratory
6/30 Scientists prolong lifespan of flies
Scientists at the Institute of Cell Biology, in Switzerland, have successfully managed to prolong the lifespan of flies, activating a gene that destroys unhealthy cell
7/30 Green tea can help cure oral cancer
Green tea can help kill off cancerous cells, say researchers
8/30 Mars once had a large ocean covering a large portion of its northern hemisphere
Almost half of the northern hemisphere of Mars was once covered by a large ocean that held 20 million cubic kilometres of water: more than the Artic Ocean
9/30 Offices playing natural sounds can boost worker moods and improve cognitive abilities
Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute learned that offices which play natural sounds such as ocean waves, trees and bird calls can boost the moods of workers and improve their cognitive abilities, as well as providing privacy (by masking speech)
10/30 Impact glass may exist on Mars
Brown University researchers found that spectral signals indicate the existence of “impact glass” on the surface of Mars, with specific deposits conserved in craters
11/30 Fathers experience weight gain
Fathers have been found to experience weight gain and a rise in their body mass index (BMI), according to a research conducted by Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. The study, which followed over 10,000 men throughout a 20 year period, also revealed that the men who didn’t become fathers actually lost weight
12/30 The world's oldest skull
Divers Alberto Nava and Susan Bird discover the world's oldest skull found in an underwater cave in Mexico, believed to be the earliest trace of first Americans
13/30 Scientists create “intelligent” mice that do not experience fear or anxiety
Scientists participating in a joint University of Leeds and Mount Sinai Hospital study managed to alter a gene within mice; improving their intelligence and reducing their ability to feel anxious or fear. The discovery could prove instrumental in research into age-related cognitive decline, such as Alzheimer’s or schizophrenia
14/30 Paralysed man walks again
The ‘brain-computer interface’ system will be improved by developing an implantable version, say experts. A 26-year-old male who had suffered a spinal cord injury which had paralysed him from the waist down was given the ability to walk again by scientists, who rerouted brain waves to electrodes on his knees.The doctors responsible said that he was the first person with paraplegia caused by a spinal injury given the ability to walk without relying on manually controlled robotic limbs
15/30 Discovery of the medieval royal palaces
Archaeologists in southern England have discovered what may be one of the largest medieval royal palaces ever found – buried under the ground inside a vast prehistoric fortress at Old Sarum. The probable 12th century palace was discovered by archaeologists, using geophysical ground-penetrating ‘x-ray’ technology to map a long-vanished medieval city which has lain under grass on the site for more than 700 years
16/30 The world's rarest diamond
This rare diamond that survived a trip from deep within the Earth's interior confirmed that there is an ocean’s worth of water beneath the planet’s crust
17/30 Virtual reality can revolutionise healthcare
Cardiologists at the Institute of Cardiology in Poland have successfully used virtual reality to restore blood flow to a blocked artery, leading the way for it to revolutionise certain aspects of healthcare, in surgical procedures and during training. Using wearable virtual reality equipment, similar to that of Google Glass, developed specifically for the surgical procedure, doctor completed the difficult procedure
18/30 Puppies born by IVF in the US
After years of failed attempts, scientists at Cornell University successfully bred the world's first puppies born through IVF, allowing for research into the conservation of endangered breeds and protection of those that are at risk of disease
19/30 Cancer is caused by environmental factors
Research into the causes of cancer concluded that, on the whole, it is due to environmental factors, not, as was previously thought, “bad luck”
20/30 Fossil fight
'Astounding' fossil find from Montana revealing two dinosaurs locked in mortal combat
21/30 Fusion reactors could become economically viable
Researchers at Durham University and the Oxfordshire Culham Centre for Fusion Energy have found fusion reactors could become economically viable ways of generating electricity in just a few decades, telling politicians and policy makers to begin the process of planning for their introduction and the replacement of nuclear power stations. Analysis by these researchers has found that the costs associated with fusion power shows its feasibility, when compared with traditional fission reactors, generating electricity at a similar price
22/30 Discovery of the whale skeletons
Chilean and Smithsonian paleontologists study several fossil whale skeletons at Cerro Ballena, next to the Pan-American Highway in the Atacama Region of Chile
23/30 Discovery of The Dead Sea Scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls are almost 1,000 biblical manuscripts discovered in the decade after the Second World War in what is now the West Bank. The texts, mostly written on parchment but also on papyrus and bronze, are the earliest surviving copies of biblical and extra-biblical documents known to be in existence, dating over a 700-year period around the birth of Jesus. The ancient Jewish sect the Essenes is supposed to have authored the scrolls, written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, although no conclusive proof has been found to this effect
24/30 Complete mammoth skeleton discovered
The first complete mammoth skeleton to be found in France for more than a century was uncovered in a gravel pit on the banks of the Marne, 30 miles north-east of Paris. Picture shows experts at work making a silicon cast of the mammoth's tusk
25/30 Byzantine mosaic discovered
Plans for a walkway at the centre of the furious dispute over Jerusalem's holiest site were delayed by the discovery of a Byzantine mosaic
26/30 Neolithic 'lost avenue' - prehistoric stone circle discovered
The discovery of a Neolithic 'lost avenue' was described as one of the most important finds of the last century. Since the 1700s, archeologists and historians have argued over the existence of the huge sarsen stones, which were unearthed at the site of the world's biggest prehistoric stone circle at Avebury in Wiltshire
27/30 Ancient gold found near Stonehenge
Gold fitting for a dagger sheath (around 1900 BC.) found near Stonehenge
28/30 The Rosetta Stone discovery
The Rosetta Stone is a basalt slab inscribed with a decree of pharaoh Ptolemy Epiphanes (205-180 BC) in three languages, Greek, Hieroglyphic and Demotic script. Discovered near Rosetta in Egypt
29/30 We are made from stardust
In 1957, a paper was published which said we are all made of stardust. Well, not quite that, but almost. Four scientists of the University of Cambridge, Fred Hoyle, William Fowler and Margaret and Geoffrey Burbidge, had conducted extensive research into stellar nucleosynthesis, the theory that all elements are created in the oldest chemical factories in the universe - stars. This paper, called ‘Synthesis of the Elements in Stars’, but better known as B2FH because of the initials of its authors, was at odds with the theory common at the time that all the elements were synthesised during the Big Bang. B2FH argued that when a star ages and dies it will enrich the interstellar medium with heavier elements, from which new stars - and, presumably, we - are formed
30/30 Optical fibres discovery
The internet is a truly incredibly thing, but we all hate it when it works too slowly. That’s where optical fibres come in. Made of a high quality extruded glass called silica, they guide light through a process of refraction, and in doing so are able to transmit bandwidths at a remarkably high speed and over remarkably long distances. As such, they are used in telecommunications and computer networking to speed up internet connections, able to do so due to the fact that the total internal refraction of light means very little data is lost. And the best thing about optical fibres is when at Imperial College London they were first demonstrated to be able to ‘bend’ light by Harold Hopkins and Narinder Kapany, dubbed the ‘founding father of fibre optics’
2. He was denied access to labs because of his race
After joining the University of Calcutta as a Professor of Physics, Bose was often denied access to laboratories due to his race, as the British Empire continued to assert its control over Indian educational institutions.
The professor would resort to conducting elaborate experiments inside his lodgings: a 24 square foot room in downtown Calcutta, in which he struggled to house all his scientific equipment.
He also reportedly faced racial discrimination and abuse during his time as a professor, but refused to allow this - and a chronic lack of funding for equipment - affect his pioneering research.
3. He was one of the ‘fathers of radio science’
There is a common misconception that the famous biophysicist is in some way connected with Bose, the modern technology company which makes high-quality headphones and sound equipment.
This is not the case. Bose was, however, a significant figure in the creation of modern radio and sonic technology - while also having a keen interest in botany.
During years of research, Bose made outstanding progress in bringing remote wireless signalling to life and invented an early version of wireless telecommunication.
Bose would have been able to reap significant financial and commercial benefit from these discoveries had he opted to cash in - but he rejected wealth and made his inventions public, to allow others to develop his research.
In 1997, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers named Bose as a “father of radio science”
4. He understood that plants ‘feel pain’
Perhaps Bose’s greatest achievement was his invention of the crescograph, which allowed scientists to discover how the seasons and external stimuli affected plant life.
The scientist worked tirelessly to chart how chemical inhibitors, temperature and light change the way plants grow, and advise humans on how to better care for vegetation.
It paved the way for scientists to better understand how to cultivate crops in a more effective way, and encouraged people to take better care of plant life. In one particular report, Bose wrote that he believed plants “feel pain and understand affection” just as much as humans do.
Google Doodle celebrates Christmas caroling
Today's Google Doodle features activist Steve Biko
3/38 Walter Cronkite
Google celebrates Walter Cronkite's 100th birthday
4/38 Ladislao José Biro
Google celebrates Ladislao José Biro 117th birthday
Google celebrates its 18th birthday
6/38 The history of tea in Britain
Google celebrates the 385th anniversary of tea in the UK
7/38 Autumnal equinox 2016
Google marks the start of fall
8/38 Paralympics 2016
Google marks the start of the Paralympic Games 2016
9/38 Nettie Stevens
Google celebrates Nettie Stevens 155th birthday
10/38 Father's Day 2016
Google celebrates Father's Day
11/38 Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
Google celebrates Elizabeth Garrett Anderson 180th birthday
12/38 Earth Day 2016
Google celebrates Earth Day
13/38 Ravi Shankar
Google marks Pandit Ravi Shankar's 96th birthday
14/38 Olympic Games in 1896
Google are celebrates the 120th anniversary of the modern Olympic Games in 1896
15/38 World Twenty20 final
Google celebrates the 2016 World Twenty20 cricket final between the West Indies and England with a doodle
16/38 William Morris
Google celebrates William Morris' 182 birthday with a doodle showcasing his most famous designs
17/38 St Patrick's Day 2016
Googlle celebrates St Patrick's Day on 17 March
18/38 Caroline Herschel
Google marks Caroline Herschel's 266th birthday
19/38 Clara Rockmore
Google celebrates Clara Rockmore's 105th birthday
20/38 International Women's Day 2016
#OneDayIWill video marks International Woman's Day on 8 March
21/38 St David's Day 2016
Google marks St David's Day
22/38 Leap Year 2016
Google celebrates Leap Day on 28 February 2
23/38 Lantern Festival 2016
Google celebrates the last day of the Chinese New Year celebrations with a doodle of the Lantern Festival
24/38 Stethoscope Inventor, René Laennec
Google celebrate's René Laennec's 235th birthday
25/38 Valentine's Day 2016
Google celebrates Valentine's Day with a romantic Doodle
26/38 Dmitri Mendeleev
Google celebrate Dmitri Mendeleev's 182nd birthday
27/38 "The televisor" demonstartion
Google Doodle celebrates 90 years since the first demonstration of television or "the televisor" to the public
28/38 Professor Scoville
Google marks Professor Scoville’s 151st birthday
29/38 Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Google marks Sophie Taeuber-Arp's 127th birthday
30/38 Charles Perrault
Google celebrates author Charles Perrault's 388th birthday
31/38 Mountain of Butterflies discovery
Google celebrates the 41st anniversary of the discovery of the Mountain of Butterflies
32/38 Winter Solstice 2015
Google celebrate the Winter Solstice
33/38 St Andrew's Day 2015
Google marks St Andrew's Day with doodle featuring Scotland's flag and Loch Ness monster
34/38 41st anniversary of the discovery of 'Lucy'
Google marks the 41st anniversary of the discovery of 'Lucy', the name given to a collection of fossilised bones that once made up the skeleton of a hominid from the Australopithecus afarensis species, who lived in Ethiopia 3.2 million years ago
35/38 George Boole
Google marks George Boole's 200th birthday
36/38 Halloween 2015
Google celebrates Halloween using an interactive doodle game "Global Candy Cup"
37/38 Prague Astronomical Clock
Google celebrates the 605th anniversary of the Prague Astronomical Clock, one of the oldest functioning timepieces in the world
38/38 Autumnal Equinox 2015
Google marks the autumnal equinox on 23 September
5. There is a crater on the moon named after him
A small impact crater on the far side of the Moon is named after Bose.
The Bose Crater is located close to Crater Bhabha and Crater Adler and has a reported diameter of 91 kilometres.
The outer rim of the Bose Crater has become worn and the edges rounded by impacts, although the shape of the site has been well-preserved.
The crater was named after Bose to recognise his achievements in the field of wireless telecommunications in particular, which are said to have paved the way for satellite communication.Reuse content