LAW REPORT: Cable cancer risk did not call for new rules

LAW REPORT 20 October 1995

Regina v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, ex parte Duddridge and others; Court of Appeal (Lord Justice Kennedy, Lord Justice Peter Gibson and Sir Iain Glidewell) 6 October 1995

The unproven possibility that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from high- voltage cables forming part of the national grid might increase the risk of children in the locality developing leukaemia was not enough to impose on the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry an obligation, either under domestic or European law, to issue regulations limiting such EMFs.

The Court of Appeal refused an application for leave to appeal against the decision of the Queen's Bench Divisional Court, on 3 October 1994, refusing an application for judicial review of the Secretary of State's decision not to issue regulations limiting EMFs from cables laid by National Grid plc or other licence-holders under the Electricity Act 1989.

The application was brought on behalf of three children, Lloyd Duddridge, Danielle Bye and Naomi Holliday, who lived in South Woodford near where National Grid plc were laying a new high-voltage underground cable. It was alleged that the non-ionising radiation emitted from these cables, well in excess of the average domestic level, would expose them to a risk of developing leukaemia.

Section 3(3) of the 1989 Act imposed on the Secretary of State a duty to exercise his functions under the Act in the manner best calculated "(d) to protect the public from dangers arising from the generation, transmission or supply of electricity". Section 29 empowered him to make regulations to this end.

The applicants argued that the Secretary of State should take a "precautionary view" of the risk from EMFs and should lay down regulations to control it.

Michael Beloff QC and Graham Read (Leigh, Day & Co) for the applicants; Stephen Richards and Ian Burnett (Treasury Solicitor) for the Secretary of State; Alan Griffiths (Freshfields) for National Grid plc.

Sir Iain Glidewell said it was clear that if there was a risk of personal injury or damage to property arising from the transmission of electricity through the new cables, the Secretary of State was under a duty to protect the public from that risk by making appropriate regulations. But the expert evidence adduced in the Divisional Court did not establish there was such a risk. The furthest it went was as stated by Dr J. A. Dennis, a former member of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), who said:

The totality of the scientific evidence points to the weak possibility that prolonged exposure to power frequency magnetic fields, while not a direct causal factor in inducing human leukaemias, may enhance the risks of these cancers, especially in young children . . .

The applicants' other expert, Professor Scott Davies, concluded:

I do not believe that a causal relationship has yet been established. Nevertheless . . . that such exposures may increase the risk of childhood leukaemia cannot be dismissed, given the current evidence.

The Secretary of State's case was that this was insufficient to impose on him a duty to act. The applicants argued that he had set the threshold too high, and if there was evidence of a possible risk he was under a duty to use his powers to obviate it. That was the standard adopted as government policy in a white paper of 1990, "This Common Inheritance".

The Secretary of State was said to be under a duty to adopt what was called the "precautionary principle" in order to comply with European Community law. On this point, the applicants also sought to refer the case to the European Court of Justice. They relied on article 130r of the Treaty of Rome, as amended by the Maastricht Treaty, and incorporated into English law by the European Communities Act 1972, as amended by the 1993 Act.

In his Lordship's judgment, the court could resolve the issue without referring it to Europe. Article 130r set out the aims which Community policy on the environment should be designed to achieve; it did not of itself place any obligation on any organ of a national government. The creation of a policy on the environment required a decision by, and action such as the promulgation of a directive by, the organs of the Community. If or when such a measure was adopted, the Secretary of State would be under whatever obligation it imposed; at present he was under no such obligation.

Lord Justice Kennedy and Lord Justice Peter Gibson agreed.

Suggested Topics
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Compensation and Benefits Manager - Brentwood - Circa £60,000

£60000 per annum: Ashdown Group: Compensation and Benefits Manager - Compensat...

Finance Manager - Recruitment Business (Media & Entertainment)

£28000 - £35000 per annum + negotiable: Sauce Recruitment: We have an exciting...

HR Advisor - North London / North West London

£30000 - £35000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Advisor - North London...

Finance Manager - Recruitment Business (Media & Entertainment)

£28000 - £32000 per annum + negotiable: Sauce Recruitment: We have an exciting...

Day In a Page

The drugs revolution starts now as MPs agree its high time for change

The drugs revolution starts now as MPs agree its high time for change

Commons debate highlights growing cross-party consensus on softening UK drugs legislation, unchanged for 43 years
The camera is turned on tabloid editors in Richard Peppiatt's 'One Rogue Reporter'

Gotcha! The camera is turned on tabloid editors

Hugh Grant says Richard Peppiatt's 'One Rogue Reporter' documentary will highlight issues raised by Leveson
Fall of the Berlin Wall: It was thanks to Mikhail Gorbachev that this symbol of division fell

Fall of the Berlin Wall

It was thanks to Gorbachev that this symbol of division fell
Halloween 2014: What makes Ouija boards, demon dolls, and evil clowns so frightening?

What makes ouija boards and demon dolls scary?

Ouija boards, demon dolls, evil children and clowns are all classic tropes of horror, and this year’s Halloween releases feature them all. What makes them so frightening, decade after decade?
A safari in modern Britain: Rose Rouse reveals how her four-year tour of Harlesden taught her as much about the UK as it did about NW10

Rose Rouse's safari in modern Britain

Rouse decided to walk and talk with as many different people as possible in her neighbourhood of Harlesden and her experiences have been published in a new book
Welcome to my world of no smell and odd tastes: How a bike accident left one woman living with unwanted food mash-ups

'My world of no smell and odd tastes'

A head injury from a bicycle accident had the surprising effect of robbing Nell Frizzell of two of her senses

Matt Parker is proud of his square roots

The "stand-up mathematician" is using comedy nights to preach maths to big audiences
Paul Scholes column: Beating Manchester City is vital part of life at Manchester United. This is first major test for Luke Shaw, Angel Di Maria and Radamel Falcao – it’s not a game to lose

Paul Scholes column

Beating City is vital part of life at United. This is first major test for Shaw, Di Maria and Falcao – it’s not a game to lose
Frank Warren: Call me an old git, but I just can't see that there's a place for women’s boxing

Frank Warren column

Call me an old git, but I just can't see that there's a place for women’s boxing
Adrian Heath interview: Former Everton striker prepares his Orlando City side for the MLS - and having Kaka in the dressing room

Adrian Heath's American dream...

Former Everton striker prepares his Orlando City side for the MLS - and having Kaka in the dressing room
Simon Hart: Manchester City will rise again but they need to change their attitude

Manchester City will rise again but they need to change their attitude

Manuel Pellegrini’s side are too good to fail and derby allows them to start again, says Simon Hart
Isis in Syria: A general reveals the lack of communication with the US - and his country's awkward relationship with their allies-by-default

A Syrian general speaks

A senior officer of Bashar al-Assad’s regime talks to Robert Fisk about his army’s brutal struggle with Isis, in a dirty war whose challenges include widespread atrocities
‘A bit of a shock...’ Cambridge economist with Glasgow roots becomes Zambia’s acting President

‘A bit of a shock...’ Economist with Glasgow roots becomes Zambia’s acting President

Guy Scott's predecessor, Michael Sata, died in a London hospital this week after a lengthy illness
Fall of the Berlin Wall: History catches up with Erich Honecker - the East German leader who praised the Iron Curtain and claimed it prevented a Third World War

Fall of the Berlin Wall

History catches up with Erich Honecker - the East German leader who praised the Iron Curtain and claimed it prevented a Third World War
How to turn your mobile phone into easy money

Turn your mobile phone into easy money

There are 90 million unused mobiles in the UK, which would be worth £7bn if we cashed them in, says David Crookes