LAW REPORT: Court can vary husband's pension scheme

Brooks v Brooks; House of Lords (Lord Keith of Kinkel, Lord Ackner, Lord Lloyd of Berwick, Lord Nicholls of Birkenhead and Lord Steyn) 29 June 1995

A pension scheme in which the husband was the only member and under which provision could be made for his wife on his death was a marriage settlement which the court had jurisdiction to vary to provide a pension for the wife on divorce.

The House of Lords dismissed an appeal by the husband against decisions of the Court of Appeal and Mr Justice Ewbank affirming a district judge's order varying the husband's pension fund to provide pensions for the wife on divorce.

The parties divorced after a 12-year marriage. The husband was then 63 and the wife 54. The husband's retirement benefits scheme was set up by his company, which had also employed the wife. The husband was the only scheme member. The benefits were to be provided under a policy with the Equitable Life Assurance Society.

The rules provided that the husband was entitled at his retirement to elect to give up a portion of his pension to provide, from the date of his death, a deferred pension for life for his spouse and that a lump sum death benefit was payable if he died while still employed or within five years of drawing his pension.

The rules also provided that, if a benefit payable under the policy exceeded the maximum permissible, the company was entitled to use the excess to augment existing benefits under the policy or provide additional benefits. Any unused excess would be refunded to the company. The district judge varied the scheme to provide the wife with an immediate pension and a deferred pension from the husband's death.

The issue was whether the court had jurisdiction to vary the terms of the pension scheme under section 24(1)(c) of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 which empowers the court to make "(c) an order varying for the benefit of the parties to the marriage . . . any ante-nuptial or post-nuptial settlement . . . made by the parties to the marriage".

John Elvidge and Geoffrey Topham (Girlings, Canterbury) for the husband; Martin Pointer and Nicholas Mostyn (Paisner & Co) for the wife.

Lord Nicholls said that there was no express power enabling the court to vary pension schemes. In English law "settlement" was not a term of art with one specific and precise meaning. In the context of section 24 the disposition must be one which made some form of continuing provision for both or either parties to a marriage.

If each of the unexceptional features of the husband's pension was considered in isolation, it was easy to conclude that the scheme did not constitute a marriage settlement made by the husband. The primary benefit was a pension payable to him. That, however, could not be the right approach. The husband was to be taken to have entered into the scheme with the intention of providing for the retirement of himself and his wife. The feature which placed the scheme on the marriage settlement side of the line was the presence of the rules relating to death benefits.

It would be difficult to conclude that a scheme under which benefits were payable exclusively to the scheme member was a marriage settlement. The court had power to vary the scheme in the present case so far as it constituted a settlement made by the husband.

The surplus money needed to be distinguished from the pension and death benefits. The surplus money did not form part of the settled property. However, the husband's company was insolvent, with creditors including the Inland Revenue. A variation of the scheme, which met with the Inland Revenue's approval, so that the wife's pensions were provided in priority to, and if necessary in dimunition of, the pension payable to the husband, was appropriate. It was for the husband to take any steps necessary to enable the surplus to be used to maintain his pension at the maximum permitted level if part of the fund was used for making pension provision for the wife.

Not every pension scheme constituted a marriage settlement. Even when a scheme did fall within the court's jurisdiction to vary, it would not be right for the court to vary one scheme member's rights to the prejudice of other scheme members.

If the court was to be able to split pension rights on divorce in the more usual case of a multi-member scheme where the wife had no earnings of her own from the same employer, legislation would be needed.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR Manager

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: They are in need of a HR Manage...

h2 Recruit Ltd: Business Development Manager - HR Consultancy - £65,000 OTE

£35000 - £40000 per annum + £65,000 OTE: h2 Recruit Ltd: London, Birmingham, M...

Day In a Page

Homeless Veterans appeal: 'You look for someone who's an inspiration and try to be like them'

Homeless Veterans appeal

In 2010, Sgt Gary Jamieson stepped on an IED in Afghanistan and lost his legs and an arm. He reveals what, and who, helped him to make a remarkable recovery
Could cannabis oil reverse the effects of cancer?

Could cannabis oil reverse effects of cancer?

As a film following six patients receiving the controversial treatment is released, Kate Hilpern uncovers a very slippery issue
The Interview movie review: You can't see Seth Rogen and James Franco's Kim Jong Un assassination film, but you can read about it here

The Interview movie review

You can't see Seth Rogen and James Franco's Kim Jong Un assassination film, but you can read about it here
Serial mania has propelled podcasts into the cultural mainstream

How podcasts became mainstream

People have consumed gripping armchair investigation Serial with a relish typically reserved for box-set binges
Jesus Christ has become an unlikely pin-up for hipster marketing companies

Jesus Christ has become an unlikely pin-up

Kevin Lee Light, aka "Jesus", is the newest client of creative agency Mother while rival agency Anomaly has launched Sexy Jesus, depicting the Messiah in a series of Athena-style poses
Rosetta space mission voted most important scientific breakthrough of 2014

A memorable year for science – if not for mice

The most important scientific breakthroughs of 2014
Christmas cocktails to make you merry: From eggnog to Brown Betty and Rum Bumpo

Christmas cocktails to make you merry

Mulled wine is an essential seasonal treat. But now drinkers are rediscovering other traditional festive tipples. Angela Clutton raises a glass to Christmas cocktails
5 best activity trackers

Fitness technology: 5 best activity trackers

Up the ante in your regimen and change the habits of a lifetime with this wearable tech
Paul Scholes column: It's a little-known fact, but I have played one of the seven dwarves

Paul Scholes column

It's a little-known fact, but I have played one of the seven dwarves
Fifa's travelling circus once again steals limelight from real stars

Fifa's travelling circus once again steals limelight from real stars

Club World Cup kicked into the long grass by the continued farce surrounding Blatter, Garcia, Russia and Qatar
Frank Warren column: 2014 – boxing is back and winning new fans

Frank Warren: Boxing is back and winning new fans

2014 proves it's now one of sport's biggest hitters again
Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton: The power dynamics of the two first families

Jeb Bush vs Hillary Clinton

Karen Tumulty explores the power dynamics of the two first families
Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley with a hotbed of technology start-ups

Stockholm is rivalling Silicon Valley

The Swedish capital is home to two of the most popular video games in the world, as well as thousands of technology start-ups worth hundreds of millions of pounds – and it's all happened since 2009
Did Japanese workers really get their symbols mixed up and display Santa on a crucifix?

Crucified Santa: Urban myth refuses to die

The story goes that Japanese store workers created a life-size effigy of a smiling "Father Kurisumasu" attached to a facsimile of Our Lord's final instrument of torture
Jennifer Saunders and Kate Moss join David Walliams on set for TV adaptation of The Boy in the Dress

The Boy in the Dress: On set with the stars

Walliams' story about a boy who goes to school in a dress will be shown this Christmas