LAW REPORT: Evidence from bugging device admissible

Regina v Khan; House of Lords (Lord Keith of Kinkel, Lord Browne- Wilkinson, Lord Slynn of Hadley, Lord Nolan, Lord Nicholls of Birkenhead) 2 July 1996

Evidence of tape-recorded conversations obtained by means of an electronic listening device attached by the police to a private house without the know-ledge of its owners or occupiers was admissible in a criminal trial.

The House of Lords dismissed an appeal by Sultan Khan and affirmed the decision of the Court of Appeal ([1995] QB 27) dismissing his appeal against conviction for being knowingly concerned in the fraudulent evasion of the prohibition on the importation of heroin, for which he was sentenced to three years' imprisonment.

The Crown's case depended on the admissibility of evidence as to the terms of tape-recorded conversations, implicating the defendant, which had been obtained by the attachment of a listening device at a private address. It was admitted that this had involved a civil trespass and had occasioned some damage to the property. Having conducted a voir dire, the judge ruled that the evidence was admissible. The defendant was rearraigned and pleaded guilty.

Franz Muller QC and Mark George (Graysons, Sheffield) for the defendant; Alan Moses QC and Stephen Gullick (Customs & Excise Solicitor, Salford) for the Crown.

Lord Nolan said there were two issues. The first was whether the evidence was admissible at all. The second was whether it should none the less have been excluded by the judge in exercising his discretion at common law or under section 78 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.

The focal point of the defendant's case was that there was no legal framework regulating the installation and use by the police of covert listening devices.

Mr Muller likened this case to Malone v United Kingdom (1984) 7 EHRR 14, where the European Court of Human Rights held that the tapping of the applicant's telephone amounted to a breach of his rights, under article 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1953), to "respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence".

As a result of that decision, telephone tapping was strictly regulated under the Telecommunications Act 1985. The use in evidence of material obtained by the interception of communications was now expressly forbidden by section 9.

In the light of R v Sang [1980] AC 402 (where it was held that a judge had no discretion to refuse to admit relevant evidence on the ground that it had been obtained by improper or unfair means), the argument that the evidence of the taped conversations in this case was inadmissible could only be sustained if two wholly new principles were formulated in English law. First, that the defendant enjoyed a right of privacy, similar to article 8 of the Convention, in respect of the taped conversations. Second, that evidence of a conversation obtained in breach of that right was inadmissible.

The objection to the first was that there was no such right of privacy in English law. The objection to the second was that even if there were such a right, the decision in R v Sang and others following it made it plain that as a matter of English law, evidence obtained improperly or unlawfully remained admissible, subject to the trial judge's power to exclude it in the exercise of his common law discretion or under section 78 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.

His Lordship concluded that the defendant failed on the first issue. Evidence of the taped conversations was clearly admissible as a matter of law.

As to the second issue, his Lordship accepted that if evidence had been obtained in circumstances which involved an apparent breach of article 8, or for that matter an apparent breach of the law of a foreign country, that was a matter which might be relevant to the exercise of the section 78 power. Its significance would normally be determined not so much by its apparent unlawfulness or irregularity, as upon its effect, taken as a whole, upon the fairness or unfairness of the proceedings.

In this case the judge was fully entitled to hold that the circumstances in which the relevant evidence was obtained, even if they constituted a breach of article 8, were not such as to require the exclusion of the evidence.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: HR Manager

£36000 - £45000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Ashdown Group: HR Manager Shared Services - Uxbridge, - 1 Year contract

£50000 per annum: Ashdown Group: HR Manager Shared Services - Uxbridge, Stock...

Recruitment Genius: Graduate Human Resource Officer and Executive Assistant

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity to join one of...

Ashdown Group: HR Assistant (Events business) - Central Manchester - £20K

£18000 - £20000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: HR Assistant (Events busi...

Day In a Page

Fishing for votes with Nigel Farage: The Ukip leader shows how he can work an audience as he casts his line to the disaffected of Grimsby

Fishing is on Nigel Farage's mind

Ukip leader casts a line to the disaffected
Who is bombing whom in the Middle East? It's amazing they don't all hit each other

Who is bombing whom in the Middle East?

Robert Fisk untangles the countries and factions
China's influence on fashion: At the top of the game both creatively and commercially

China's influence on fashion

At the top of the game both creatively and commercially
Lord O’Donnell: Former cabinet secretary on the election and life away from the levers of power

The man known as GOD has a reputation for getting the job done

Lord O'Donnell's three principles of rule
Rainbow shades: It's all bright on the night

Rainbow shades

It's all bright on the night
'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

Bread from heaven

Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

How 'the Axe' helped Labour

UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power
Rare and exclusive video shows the horrific price paid by activists for challenging the rule of jihadist extremists in Syria

The price to be paid for challenging the rule of extremists

A revolution now 'consuming its own children'
Welcome to the world of Megagames

Welcome to the world of Megagames

300 players take part in Watch the Skies! board game in London
'Nymphomaniac' actress reveals what it was really like to star in one of the most explicit films ever

Charlotte Gainsbourg on 'Nymphomaniac'

Starring in one of the most explicit films ever
Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers

Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi

The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers
Vince Cable interview: Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'

Vince Cable exclusive interview

Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'
Iwan Rheon interview: Game of Thrones star returns to his Welsh roots to record debut album

Iwan Rheon is returning to his Welsh roots

Rheon is best known for his role as the Bastard of Bolton. It's gruelling playing a sadistic torturer, he tells Craig McLean, but it hasn't stopped him recording an album of Welsh psychedelia
Russell Brand's interview with Ed Miliband has got everyone talking about The Trews

Everyone is talking about The Trews

Russell Brand's 'true news' videos attract millions of viewers. But today's 'Milibrand' interview introduced his resolutely amateurish style to a whole new crowd
Morne Hardenberg interview: Cameraman for BBC's upcoming show Shark on filming the ocean's most dangerous predator

It's time for my close-up

Meet the man who films great whites for a living