Famous wills: They couldn't take it with them...

view gallery VIEW GALLERY

The last wishes of some of history's most eminent figures have been released. Kevin Rawlinson surveys their legacies

A record of more than 6 million Victorian and early 20th-century wills has been made public for the first time, revealing the last wishes of some of the most important figures of the age, including Charles Dickens, Karl Marx and Charles Darwin.

The documents, dating from 1861 to 1941 and now available on-line, show that eminent Victorians Dickens and Darwin left estates worth the equivalent of millions of pounds today. Perhaps fittingly, Karl Marx left the more modest equivalent of about £9,000.

The index also lists the wills of the Conservative politician Neville Chamberlain, and the writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of Sherlock Holmes.

Chamberlain, before serving as Prime Minister from 1937 to 1940, lost £50,000 of his father's money in an attempt to become a farmer in the Bahamas, but later bought a manufacturing firm with funds from other relatives. On his death in 1940 he left £84,013 – worth just over £4m in today's money. Conan Doyle, a physician who turned to writing as his medical practice faltered, was relatively successful. He left his widow and one of his sons £63,491, or almost £3m today.

The database, released online by the genealogical website Ancestry.co.uk, is a collation of the England and Wales's National Probate Calendar – a summary of all of wills processed each year.

It shows that the popularity of D H Lawrence's writings came too late for the author to benefit fully. He left behind a relatively paltry £2,438 on his death in 1930, worth around £113,000 today.

Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic expeditions brought him fame but ultimately not fortune. The explorer, who led the ill-fated voyage of discovery on the ship Endurance, died leaving his widow a rather meagre bequest of about £20,000 in today's money. By contrast, Darwin left a will worth the equivalent of £13m, and Dickens left £7.1m in today's money.

Dan Jones, of Ancestry.co.uk, said the data "is a fantastic resource for family historians, but is also fascinating to anyone with an interest in social history or just in famous names".

It offers "a great insight into the social standing of people in their own time... The details can add to the legend: people would probably be fairly upset if they found out that Karl Marx was secretly squirrelling away vast sums of money."

"We've only just started digging," Mr Jones added. The wills can provide "evidence of unknown transgressions or scandals in the private lives of people who, in many cases, we thought we knew all about," he said.

Karl Marx, £250

The Prussian-born philosopher, political theorist, socialist and communist, was exiled from his home country and eventually made his way to Britain via France. His seminal work Das Kapital (a work about capitalism, not communism), made him famous but not necessarily rich: he died leaving only £250 – or about £20,000 today – to his youngest daughter, Eleanor Marx.

Charles Dickens, £80,000

Unlike some of his contemporaries, Dickens's fortune came to him during his lifetime. The author of 'Great Expectations', 'Bleak House' and 'The Adventures of Oliver Twist' died in 1870, leaving "effects under £80,000", or about £7.1m today.

Charles Darwin, £146,911

The God-fearing scientist struggled with his conscience before publishing arguably the most important work ever produced: 'The Origin of Species', outlining his theory of evolution. He was still able to leave an estate worth £146,911, the equivalent of £13m.

Ernest Shackleton, £556

Tales of derring-do and the achievement of bringing home all his men after the disaster which befell his 'Endurance' voyage made him a hero. They did not, however, make him rich. Various failed ventures meant he left only £556, or £20,000 today.

Neville Chamberlain, £84,013

To most, he will probably be associated with appeasement and a failed vision of "peace for our time". But the man who was seen by some as a weak prime minister died a rich man. He left an estate of £84,013, the equivalent of a little more than £4m today.

Arthur Conan Doyle, £63,491

The Scottish writer and physician is best-known for his Sherlock Holmes stories, about whom he wrote while waiting for customers to come through the door of his failing medical practice. But he died leaving an estate of £63,491 – nearly £3m today.

W G Grace, £7,278

While often considered the greatest cricket all-rounder of all time, his earnings were not even in the same league. He died leaving £7,278 in 1915, or around £617,000 today – a little more than a month's wages for a new signing at Manchester City.

Bram Stoker, £5,269

The Irish novelist Abraham 'Bram' Stoker is best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel, 'Dracula'. But he was better known during his lifetime as a PA to an actor. His estate was worth £5,269 when he died in 1912, the equivalent of £460,000 today.

D H Lawrence, £2,438

The English author, poet, playwright, essayist and literary critic, was best known for his works 'Sons and Lovers', 'Women in Love' and 'Lady Chatterley's Lover'. He left £2,438 in his will in 1930, the equivalent of £113,000 in today's money.

Lewis Carroll, £4,596

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson or – to generations of children – Lewis Carroll, author of 'Alice in Wonder-land', died in 1898 leaving £4,596, or £450,000 today – a mere fraction of the millions of pounds the recent film adaptation took at the box office.

Joseph Bazalgette, £154,201

The English engineer created the sewer system under the streets of London, as the smell of sewage – then believed to cause disease – became overpowering. The job made him a fortune and he was able to bequeth £154,201 in 1891, or £15m today.

Robert Fitzroy, £3,000

Captain of HMS 'Beagle' during the famous voyage which spawned Charles Darwin's seminal work. He was also a pioneer in meteorology and weather forecasting. He left an estate of £3,000 in 1865, the equivalent of £280,000 today.

Oscar Wilde, £250

The playwright, who was sentenced to two years' hard labour for gross indecency, is famously reported to have said: "I have nothing to declare but my genius." He was almost right. He left behind only £250 (approximately £20,000 in today's money) after his death in Paris in 1900.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs People

Recruitment Genius: Office Manager

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: Have you been doing a brilliant job in an admi...

Surrey County Council: Senior Project Officer (Fixed Term to Feb 2019)

£26,498 - £31,556: Surrey County Council: We are looking for an outgoing, conf...

Recruitment Genius: Interim Head of HR

£50000 - £60000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Are you an innovative, senior H...

Recruitment Genius: Human Resources and Payroll Administrator

£20000 - £22000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Our client, a very well respect...

Day In a Page

War with Isis: Fears that the looming battle for Mosul will unleash 'a million refugees'

The battle for Mosul will unleash 'a million refugees'

Aid agencies prepare for vast exodus following planned Iraqi offensive against the Isis-held city, reports Patrick Cockburn
Yvette Cooper: We can't lose the election. There's too much on the line

Yvette Cooper: We can't lose the election. There's too much on the line

The shadow Home Secretary on fighting radical Islam, protecting children, and why anyone in Labour who's thinking beyond May must 'sort themselves out'
A bad week for the Greens: Leader Natalie Bennett's 'car crash' radio interview is followed by Brighton council's failure to set a budget due to infighting

It's not easy being Green

After a bad week in which its leader had a public meltdown and its only city council couldn't agree on a budget vote, what next for the alternative party? It's over to Caroline Lucas to find out
Gorillas nearly missed: BBC producers didn't want to broadcast Sir David Attenborough's famed Rwandan encounter

Gorillas nearly missed

BBC producers didn't want to broadcast Sir David Attenborough's famed Rwandan encounter
Downton Abbey effect sees impoverished Italian nobles inspired to open their doors to paying guests for up to €650 a night

The Downton Abbey effect

Impoverished Italian nobles are opening their doors to paying guests, inspired by the TV drama
China's wild panda numbers have increased by 17% since 2003, new census reveals

China's wild panda numbers on the up

New census reveals 17% since 2003
Barbara Woodward: Britain's first female ambassador to China intends to forge strong links with the growing economic superpower

Our woman in Beijing builds a new relationship

Britain's first female ambassador to China intends to forge strong links with growing economic power
Courage is rare. True humility is even rarer. But the only British soldier to be awarded the Victoria Cross in Afghanistan has both

Courage is rare. True humility is even rarer

Beware of imitations, but the words of the soldier awarded the Victoria Cross were the real thing, says DJ Taylor
Alexander McQueen: The catwalk was a stage for the designer's astonishing and troubling vision

Alexander McQueen's astonishing vision

Ahead of a major retrospective, Alexander Fury talks to the collaborators who helped create the late designer's notorious spectacle
New BBC series savours half a century of food in Britain, from Vesta curries to nouvelle cuisine

Dinner through the decades

A new BBC series challenged Brandon Robshaw and his family to eat their way from the 1950s to the 1990s
Philippa Perry interview: The psychotherapist on McDonald's, fancy specs and meeting Grayson Perry on an evening course

Philippa Perry interview

The psychotherapist on McDonald's, fancy specs and meeting Grayson Perry on an evening course
Bill Granger recipes: Our chef recreates the exoticism of the Indonesian stir-fry

Bill Granger's Indonesian stir-fry recipes

Our chef was inspired by the south-east Asian cuisine he encountered as a teenager
Chelsea vs Tottenham: Harry Kane was at Wembley to see Spurs beat the Blues and win the Capital One Cup - now he's their great hope

Harry Kane interview

The striker was at Wembley to see Spurs beat the Blues and win the Capital One Cup - now he's their great hope
The Last Word: For the good of the game: why on earth don’t we leave Fifa?

Michael Calvin's Last Word

For the good of the game: why on earth don’t we leave Fifa?
HIV pill: Scientists hail discovery of 'game-changer' that cuts the risk of infection among gay men by 86%

Scientists hail daily pill that protects against HIV infection

Breakthrough in battle against global scourge – but will the NHS pay for it?