The track, called 'Gimme All Your Love', has surfaced in full on the internet, showcasing a more dance pop sound than the hard edged, hip-hop influence of her last album, 2008's 'Hard Candy'.
Lyrics include the lines: "Don't play that stupid game / Cos I'm a different kind of girl / every record sounds the same / you've got to step inside my world / Give me all your love and give me your love/ Give me all your love today / Let's forget about time /And dance our lives away."
Although the track sounds polished, it is possible the version leaked is not the final single, and could be a demo version.
The 53-year-old hitmaker is rumoured to be playing at the Superbowl in the US on February 5 next year, where she is expected to debut the new single.
Singer M.I.A and rapper Nicki Minaj are rumoured to be joining the 'Vogue' hitmaker for that performance, sparking rumours they could appear on her next album.
In a tweet about Madonna's new material, her manager Guy Oseary wrote on September 19: "She's in the studio all this week... and the music is so goooooooood...(sic)."
Other people involved in the making of Madonna's twelfth studio album include DJ Martin Solveig and producer William Orbit, who worked with her on her 'Ray of Light' album in 1998 and 'Music' in 2000.