Obituaries

Daniel K. Ludwig, shipping magnate, died New York City 27 August, aged 95. One of the world's richest men, and a recluse, at the height of his career he owned about 60 ocean-going vessels, as well as having investments in real estate, agriculture, minerals and forest products. His fortune was estimated at dollars 1.2bn last year.

Traugott Ernest Gumpert, cardiologist, died 21 August. Consultant Physician to the Royal Hospital, Sheffield, 1938-68.

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