Obituaries: Antonio Espirito Santo,

Antonio Espirito Santo, businessman, died 17 August, aged 61. A member of one of Portugal's most powerful business families, he was responsible for the non-financial divisions of their interests, mostly concentrated in Brazil.

Lawrence R. Houston, intelligence officer, died 15 August, aged 82. Known as the "founding father" of the CIA, he helped draft legislation which shaped the intelligence agency. Served as CIA general counsel from 1947 to 1973.

Oveta Culp Hobby, politician, died 16 August, aged 90. Appointed in 1953 as the first US Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. Listed in 1994 by Forbes magazine as the 287th wealthiest person in the United States, with a family fortune estimated at over $400m.