Putting the lid on Britain's swelling dustbins: Through recycling, the Government wants us to reduce our household waste by a quarter. Nicholas Schoon examines the prospects for success

THE AVERAGE British household throws slightly more than half a tonne of rubbish into its bin bags each year, but the statistics do not record any expression of guilt about the fact that at least half that weight deserves a nobler fate than the landfill tip. It could instead be turned into compost, raw material for industry or fuel for generating electricity and heat.

We are supposed to have a national tradition of thrift, and folk memories linger of how recycling helped to defeat the U-boat blockade 50 years ago. Yet other nations in north-west Europe, and the United States and Japan recycle far more than we do.

Surveys indicate that half the British population makes no effort to recycle anything - not even glass, despite the presence of more than 12,000 bottle banks (one for every 2,000 homes) - as increasing affluence and the growth of packaging and convenience foods produce more and more to throw away.

In 1990, a trial involving 100 homes in Leeds showed that recycling could cut the weight of their rubbish for disposal by 80 per cent. But it has proved difficult to persuade the average citizen to recycle large enough portions of their garbage; and even where they are willing to do so, there is then often a dearth of demand for the materials collected.

Chris Patten, then Secretary of State for the Environment, declared in 1990 that 25 per cent of domestic garbage (by weight) should be recycled or reused by the year 2000. But he was pursuing green votes for the forthcoming election and had seized on the 25 per cent target through the simplest of arithmetic: it represents half of that half of dustbin contents that is said to be potentially recyclable.

The election passed, Mr Patten went to Hong Kong and the target remains. But those who understand refuse, packaging and reclamation, including Friends of the Earth, say that the Patten target has turned out to be a sensible one - challenging yet achievable - which should bring economic and environmental benefits.

Nearly all forms of waste used in landfill can cause environmental damage. Rotting vegetable matter, paper and plastic buried in tips give off methane. Not only does this gas contribute to global warming, but it also causes the occasional explosion. And noxious liquids that accumulate at the bottom of tips can severely pollute the groundwater.

The use of wastes as raw materials for manufacturing conserves natural resources and usually saves handsomely on energy consumption, thereby reducing pollution from the burning of fossil fuels. And domestic wastes can be substituted for imported raw materials, thus helping to reduce Britain's trade deficit and providing jobs in reprocessing industries.

At present, however, only 5 per cent of Britain's domestic garbage is being converted into raw material.

Ministers at the Department of the Environment were already aware that new policies were needed in order to hit the 25 per cent target, but a mighty German recycling drive has begun to undermine Britain's more modest efforts: recent German legislation, especially new regulations against packaging waste, has flattened the UK market for recycled paper and plastic.

The DoE has told local councils to draw up recycling plans. But the pounds 15m a year it distributes in grants towards such projects, though welcome during the recession, is not a large sum when divided among the more than 400 councils involved. Soon these councils - and any other organisation that diverts domestic garbage from landfill sites for recycling - will be legally entitled to a credit, equal to the full amount of the landfill fees that they would have incurred had the recyclable material gone to a tip. The sums involved range between pounds 8 and pounds 16 per tonne.

Britain has one success story, however. Our recycling of cans - made of aluminium, steel and tin - and glass has grown steadily with little support from central government, and spectacularly so in the case of aluminium which, at pounds 600 a tonne, is the most valuable waste of all.

Manufacturers are confident that by 2000, more than half the glass and aluminium that is taken home by consumers will be recycled. Collection points across the nation are rapidly becoming common street furniture, as they are already in the rest of north-west Europe.

But the recycling of paper and plastics and the composting of food waste - materials that occupy much more room in Britain's dustbins and tips than glass and cans - are economically unattractive. The costs of collection, sorting to the necessary degree and transport to the manufacturer often outweigh the product's market value, which can swing unpredictably.

Waste-paper collection soared in Britain at the end of the Eighties as recycling became fashionable. That led to UK paper mills being oversupplied and a dramatic fall in prices. And at present, Germany's rapid expansion of paper collection is causing another slump in prices.

DoE ministers are considering new recycling incentives and are expected to submit proposals to the Treasury soon. A leading suggestion is a tax on landfill that could be justified as an environmental measure.

A modest tax of, say, pounds 5 per tonne of rubbish dumped, would add little to council tax bills, but it would also make recycling only marginally more viable.

If, however, the pounds 500m or more raised by such a tax were to be spent on recycling projects, it would give a big heave towards Mr Patten's 25 per cent target. The snag is that the Treasury is fundamentally opposed to revenue from any new taxation being committed in advance.

A DoE-commissioned report from independent consultants, published in February, concluded that the new tax would be fairly simple to collect, and would incur extra administration costs of pounds 1m a year. It also pointed out, however, that a landfill tax would lead to an increase in the use of incineration, which is cheaper than recycling.

Friends of the Earth says that, amid all the arguments about recycling, waste reduction is being virtually ignored. Increased use of refillable containers and less superfluous packaging could contribute as much to the conservation of resources and the environment, the group argues.

With the exception of detergent manufacturers, however, there is little sign on the supermarket shelves that the idea of waste reduction is being taken seriously.

(Graphic omitted)

Voices
The Sumatran tiger, endemic to the Indonesian island of Sumatra, is an endangered species
voicesJonathon Porritt: The wild tiger population is thought to have dropped by 97 per cent since 1900
Arts and Entertainment
tv
News
Gardai wait for the naked man, who had gone for a skinny dip in Belfast Lough
newsTwo skinny dippers threatened with inclusion on sex offenders’ register as naturists criminalised
Sport
Van Gaal said that his challenge in taking over Bobby Robson's Barcelona team in 1993 has been easier than the task of resurrecting the current United side
football
PROMOTED VIDEO
News
The Swiss Re tower or 'Gherkin' was at one time the UK’s most expensive office when German bank IVG and private equity firm Evans Randall bought it
news
Sport
Moeen Ali wearing the 'Save Gaza' and 'Free Palestine' wristbands on his left arm
cricket
Arts and Entertainment
The Great British Bake Off 2014 contestants
tv
Life and Style
tech
Arts and Entertainment
filmThe Battle of the Five Armies trailer released
News
news
Arts and Entertainment
Beast would strip to his underpants and take to the stage with a slogan scrawled on his bare chest whilst fans shouted “you fat bastard” at him
musicIndie music promoter was was a feature at Carter gigs
Arts and Entertainment
Story line: Susanoo slays the Yamata no Orochi serpent in the Japanese version of a myth dating back 40,000 years
arts + entsApplying the theory of evolution to the world's many mythologies
News
ebookA unique anthology of reporting and analysis of a crucial period of history
Extras
indybest
News
Performers dressed as Tunnocks chocolate teacakes, a renowned Scottish confectionary, perform during the opening ceremony of the 2014 Commonwealth Games at Celtic Park in Glasgow on July 23, 2014.
news
Life and Style
Popular plonk: Lambrusco is selling strong
Food + drinkNaff Seventies corner-shop staple is this year's Aperol Spritz
Life and Style
Shake down: Michelle and Barack Obama bump knuckles before an election night rally in Minnesota in 2008, the 'Washington Post' called it 'the fist bump heard round the world'
newsThe pound, a.k.a. the dap, greatly improves hygiene
Arts and Entertainment
La Roux
music
Independent
Travel Shop
the manor
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on city breaks Find out more
santorini
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on chic beach resorts Find out more
sardina foodie
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on country retreats Find out more
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

HR Business Partner (Maternity Cover 12 Months)

£30000 - £34000 Per Annum 25 days holiday, Private healthcare: Clearwater Peop...

Business Analyst - London - Banking - £400-£450

£400 - £450 per day: Orgtel: Business Analyst - Credit Risk - Banking - London...

Application Engineer - Flow Metering

£40000 - £50000 per annum + competitive: Progressive Recruitment: Application ...

Chemical Engineer/Project Coordinator

£40000 - £45000 per annum + competitive: Progressive Recruitment: Chemical Eng...

Day In a Page

The children were playing in the street with toy guns. The air strikes were tragically real

The air strikes were tragically real

The children were playing in the street with toy guns
Boozy, ignorant, intolerant, but very polite – The British, as others see us

Britain as others see us

Boozy, ignorant, intolerant, but very polite
Countries that don’t survey their tigers risk losing them altogether

Countries that don’t survey their tigers risk losing them

Jonathon Porritt sounds the alarm
How did our legends really begin?

How did our legends really begin?

Applying the theory of evolution to the world's many mythologies
Watch out: Lambrusco is back on the menu

Lambrusco is back on the menu

Naff Seventies corner-shop staple is this year's Aperol Spritz
A new Russian revolution: Cracks start to appear in Putin’s Kremlin power bloc

A new Russian revolution

Cracks start to appear in Putin’s Kremlin power bloc
Eugene de Kock: Apartheid’s sadistic killer that his country cannot forgive

Apartheid’s sadistic killer that his country cannot forgive

The debate rages in South Africa over whether Eugene de Kock should ever be released from jail
Standing my ground: If sitting is bad for your health, what happens when you stay on your feet for a whole month?

Standing my ground

If sitting is bad for your health, what happens when you stay on your feet for a whole month?
Commonwealth Games 2014: Dai Greene prays for chance to rebuild after injury agony

Greene prays for chance to rebuild after injury agony

Welsh hurdler was World, European and Commonwealth champion, but then the injuries crept in
Israel-Gaza conflict: Secret report helps Israelis to hide facts

Patrick Cockburn: Secret report helps Israel to hide facts

The slickness of Israel's spokesmen is rooted in directions set down by pollster Frank Luntz
The man who dared to go on holiday

The man who dared to go on holiday

New York's mayor has taken a vacation - in a nation that has still to enforce paid leave, it caused quite a stir, reports Rupert Cornwell
Best comedians: How the professionals go about their funny business, from Sarah Millican to Marcus Brigstocke

Best comedians: How the professionals go about their funny business

For all those wanting to know how stand-ups keep standing, here are some of the best moments
The Guest List 2014: Forget the Man Booker longlist, Literary Editor Katy Guest offers her alternative picks

The Guest List 2014

Forget the Man Booker longlist, Literary Editor Katy Guest offers her alternative picks
Jokes on Hollywood: 'With comedy film audiences shrinking, it’s time to move on'

Jokes on Hollywood

With comedy film audiences shrinking, it’s time to move on