Science / Microbe of the Month: Nature's cure for global pollution: Some bacteria can help to break down chemicals that cause damage to the environment, says Bernard Dixon

JAMES LOVELOCK'S Gaia - the concept of the Earth as a single living system, with powerful feedback and self-correcting processes to maintain stability - is both illuminating and persuasive. Yet it has not proved universally popular among Lovelock's scientific peers.

One reason for Gaia's mixed reception is that the theory is capable of being turned to different and even conflicting ends. It may, by highlighting the interrelatedness of the countless components of the biosphere and their links with the physical world, make us more aware of the folly of treating the environment as a bottomless sink for effluents and other pollutants. Alternatively, Gaia's resourcefulness and flexibility may suggest that she can cope, especially in the long-term, with any chemical or physical insults generated by industrial society.

Methylosinus trichosporium is a case in point. One of a group of naturally occurring microbes that live by oxidising methane into methanol, this tiny bacterium has been attracting keen interest recently because it has an additional talent that previously went unnoticed. It can break down certain products of the chemical industry that would otherwise contribute to the depletion of the Earth's protective ozone layer.

Once again, the discovery of a hitherto unknown skill possessed by one of the planet's myriad life-forms has emphasised both our ignorance of natural processes and our potential fecklessness in destroying their benefits through our clumsy interference with the environment. At the same time, we may be reassured by the knowledge that that M. trichosporium, and possibly other widely disseminated microbes too, can cope with a particular range of pollutants. But reassurance can quickly turn to complacency.

The gases known as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used since the Thirties in refrigerators and air-conditioning equipment and more recently as aerosol propellants and in foam packaging. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) have been developed over the past 10 years as more environmentally friendly alternatives. Though sometimes criticised for contributing to the Western world's extravagance with energy and materials and for destroying the ozone layer, CFCs have also brought benefits - for example, in helping to preserve life-saving vaccines so that they can be transported to remote parts of the world.

Following the Montreal protocol of 1987, CFCs should be phased out by the end of the century. Two groups of possible alternatives are HCFCs, which are substantially less destructive of the ozone layer than CFCs, and HCFs, which do not threaten the ozone shield at all - though they are under suspicion as contributing (like carbon dioxide) to global warming.

There is another important difference between HFCs and HCFCs, which could commend them as ecologically acceptable alternatives. CFCs are highly persistent, with virtually no known microbial or other biological processes by which they might be broken down. Chemists have calculated that most of the total amount of these gases released into the atmosphere over the past six decades is still there. A recalcitrant burden of pollution such as this would be highly unlikely if HFCs and HCFCs were to be used instead.

The reason for this, as reported in Bio/Technology by Dr Mary DeFlaun and colleagues at Envirogen Inc in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, is that these potential alternatives are subject to microbial attack.

Dr DeFlaun and her associates were prompted to study M. trichosporium by the discovery three years ago that it contains enzymes capable of breaking down chemicals with a similar molecular structure to CFCs. By incubating the bacterium with three different HFCs and five different HCFCs, they found that it degraded one of the former and three of the latter.

Although these successes are less than total, their major significance is in demonstrating that the potential replacements for CFCs can be broken down at all, and in suggesting that M. trichosporium and other methane oxidisers may provide a natural mechanism by which HFCs and HCFCs can be rendered safe.

M. trichosporium is just one representative (and the Envirogen researchers studied only a single strain) of a group of bacteria that are widespread in nature. Known to be very common inhabitants of the soil, lakes, swamps, aquifers, rice paddies and other environments in contact with the atmosphere, these methane oxidisers, which include Methylocystis and Methylobacter, have been comparatively little studied until recent years. It is entirely possible therefore that together they can meet the task of breaking down a wide range of HFCs and HCFCs.

Dr DeFlaun and her colleagues are confident that microbes such as M. trichosporium might be harnessed to dispose of the refrigerants in certain situations. They might, for example, be used to prevent emissions of HFCs and HCFCs at production and recycling plants, just as other microbes are exploited to deal with other unwanted effluents. But the major issue is whether regulatory authorities should sanction the widespread use of beneficial products when, as may well be true in this case, microbes in soil and water are more than capable of preventing them from accumulating in the environment.

Should Gaia not provide unambiguous answers on questions of this kind?

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
ebooks
ebooksAn introduction to the ground rules of British democracy
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
SPONSORED FEATURES
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Housekeeper

Negotiable: Recruitment Genius: This company is the holding company of an expa...

Recruitment Genius: Network Engineer

£25000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Setup, configure, troubleshoot,...

Recruitment Genius: Field Sales Consultant - Financial Services - OTE £65,000

£15000 - £65000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an exciting opportunity...

Recruitment Genius: Loan Underwriter

£18000 - £20000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is a fantastic opportunity...

Day In a Page

The Silk Roads that trace civilisation: Long before the West rose to power, Asian pathways were connecting peoples and places

The Silk Roads that trace civilisation

Long before the West rose to power, Asian pathways were connecting peoples and places
House of Lords: Outcry as donors, fixers and MPs caught up in expenses scandal are ennobled

The honours that shame Britain

Outcry as donors, fixers and MPs caught up in expenses scandal are ennobled
When it comes to street harassment, we need to talk about race

'When it comes to street harassment, we need to talk about race'

Why are black men living the stereotypes and why are we letting them get away with it?
International Tap Festival: Forget Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers - this dancing is improvised, spontaneous and rhythmic

International Tap Festival comes to the UK

Forget Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers - this dancing is improvised, spontaneous and rhythmic
War with Isis: Is Turkey's buffer zone in Syria a matter of self-defence – or just anti-Kurd?

Turkey's buffer zone in Syria: self-defence – or just anti-Kurd?

Ankara accused of exacerbating racial division by allowing Turkmen minority to cross the border
Doris Lessing: Acclaimed novelist was kept under MI5 observation for 18 years, newly released papers show

'A subversive brothel keeper and Communist'

Acclaimed novelist Doris Lessing was kept under MI5 observation for 18 years, newly released papers show
Big Blue Live: BBC's Springwatch offshoot swaps back gardens for California's Monterey Bay

BBC heads to the Californian coast

The Big Blue Live crew is preparing for the first of three episodes on Sunday night, filming from boats, planes and an aquarium studio
Austin Bidwell: The Victorian fraudster who shook the Bank of England with the most daring forgery the world had known

Victorian fraudster who shook the Bank of England

Conman Austin Bidwell. was a heartless cad who carried out the most daring forgery the world had known
Car hacking scandal: Security designed to stop thieves hot-wiring almost every modern motor has been cracked

Car hacking scandal

Security designed to stop thieves hot-wiring almost every modern motor has been cracked
10 best placemats

Take your seat: 10 best placemats

Protect your table and dine in style with a bold new accessory
Ashes 2015: Alastair Cook not the only one to be caught in The Oval mindwarp

Cook not the only one to be caught in The Oval mindwarp

Aussie skipper Michael Clarke was lured into believing that what we witnessed at Edgbaston and Trent Bridge would continue in London, says Kevin Garside
Can Rafael Benitez get the best out of Gareth Bale at Real Madrid?

Can Benitez get the best out of Bale?

Back at the club he watched as a boy, the pressure is on Benitez to find a winning blend from Real's multiple talents. As La Liga begins, Pete Jenson asks if it will be enough to stop Barcelona
Athletics World Championships 2015: Beijing witnesses new stage in the Jessica Ennis-Hill and Katarina Johnson-Thompson heptathlon rivalry

Beijing witnesses new stage in the Jess and Kat rivalry

The last time the two British heptathletes competed, Ennis-Hill was on the way to Olympic gold and Johnson-Thompson was just a promising teenager. But a lot has happened in the following three years
Jeremy Corbyn: Joining a shrewd operator desperate for power as he visits the North East

Jeremy Corbyn interview: A shrewd operator desperate for power

His radical anti-austerity agenda has caught the imagination of the left and politically disaffected and set a staid Labour leadership election alight
Isis executes Palmyra antiquities chief: Defender of ancient city's past was killed for protecting its future

Isis executes Palmyra antiquities chief

Robert Fisk on the defender of the ancient city's past who was killed for protecting its future