Monday 06 January 1997
The Jewish priesthood, the Cohanim, are among the true children of Israel, having genetic distinctions that seem to date back to "a unique evolutionary event" - a DNA insert - 29,000 to 340,000 years ago. Biblical accounts say the Cohanim (separate from rabbis) were established3,300 years ago when the first Israelite high priest was appointed. Membership is passed to male children of priests on their Y chromosome. Genetic testing found only 1.5 per cent of Cohanim had the DNA insert, compared with 18.4 per cent of lay Jews, even among those living as far apart as Israel, the US and UK.
Why is it that obese girls tend to enter puberty earlier than average, and lean female ballet dancers much later? A team from the University of California at San Francisco reckons the answer is the hormone leptin, secreted by fat tissue. They injected leptin into pre-pubertal female mice, and found that they began reproducing before a control group. Conclusion: "that leptin acts as a signal triggering puberty", say the authors in last week's Science, "supporting the hypothesis that fat accumulation enhances maturation of the reproductive tract". So if you want to grow up, put on some weight.
If life existed here 3,800 million years ago, as research in Greenland rocks suggests, Heinrich Holland at Harvard University says that either the destructive effects of meteorite impacts had decreased dramatically before then, or life was invented more than once, or our distant ancestors were truly hardy. Writing in Science, he prefers the first - reckoning that geological evidence points to a planet that had already settled down to its present, "somewhat humdrum existence", offering the relatively stable conditions required to support life.
Happy birthday this year to complex numbers (devised in 1797), the sewing machine and modern flute (1847), the discovery of the mountains of the Moon (1647), of tobacco (1497, by a monk who sailed with Christopher Columbus), and of the electron (1897) by Joseph John Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. Expect celebrations of the latter centenary around March.
- 1 Tamir Rice: 12-year-old boy playing with fake gun dies after being shot by Ohio police
- 2 To help fuel their propaganda machine against the poor, our government has now decided to redefine the word 'welfare'
- 3 Halle Berry takes ex-boyfriend Gabriel Aubry to court for allegedly trying to make daughter look less African-American
- 4 Isis propaganda image showing 'abuse of Muslim woman by soldiers' is actually taken from Hungarian porn film
- 5 'You should come to my house and eat cheeses with me': 4-year-old sends adorable love letter to girl at school
Turkish President: 'Equality between men and women is against nature'
Tamir Rice: 12-year-old boy playing with fake gun dies after being shot by Ohio police
Ferguson decision: Tea Party website mocks Michael Brown's family over T-shirt typo
Michael Brown shooting: Ten things we know – or know better – now the Ferguson grand jury's work is over
Isis propaganda image showing 'abuse of Muslim woman by soldiers' is actually taken from Hungarian porn film
Rochester by-election: Ukip gains second MP as Tory defector Mark Reckless holds seat
'Beast of Bolsover' Dennis Skinner takes Ukip MP Mark Reckless to task moments after he is sworn in
Rochester by-election: Labour MP Emily Thornberry resigns after posting white van and England flags tweet
The young are the new poor: Sharp increase in number of under-25s living in poverty, while over-65s are better off than ever
Revealed: How the world gets rich – from privatising British public services
Exclusive: UK approved £7m Israeli arms sales in six months before Gaza conflict
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