The Rights of Every Man: Article 11

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The Independent Online
'The Independent' is publishing daily each of the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, illustrated by Ralph Steadman, to mark its 50th anniversary on 10 December.

Article 11

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the

guarantees necessary for his defence.

(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

A pamphlet edition of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is published by Waterstone's, price pounds 1. Proceeds to the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture.

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