Families seek damages over CJD deaths: Tim Kelsey reports on accusations that the health department was negligent in the manufacture of a growth hormone given to 2,000 children

TWO YEARS AGO, Patrick Baldwin, a Royal Navy engineer telephoned his parents from Portsmouth. He had a bad cough. His father thought nothing of it. Several weeks later, Patrick's brother told his father that there was something seriously wrong. Patrick had lost his sense of balance.

Royal Navy doctors could find nothing wrong with him. Finally they diagnosed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, an incurable illness that progressively destroys the brain but which is undetectable in the blood.

Patrick died just before Christmas last year. He was 29 and left two daughters, aged 6 and 7. He died by degrees: first he lost use of his limbs, and then his sight. As the months wore on, he lost his speech and then all control over his nervous system. 'He became just like a vegetable,' said his father, Noel, a British Rail manager in Lincolnshire.

Shortly before Patrick died, Mr Baldwin saw a newspaper article which disclosed that the disease might be associated with the hormone injections that Patrick had received as a boy to help him grow. Mr Baldwin then discovered that eight others, who had had the same course of treatment, had died.

Next month, the Lincoln coroner is to hold a public inquest into Patrick's death. It will be the first of its kind - there was no inquest into any of the eight earlier deaths.

The hearing is likely to be a turning point for the 2,000 young adults who underwent growth hormone treatment as children. The Institute of Child Health warned them last year that they were at risk of CJD.

The families argue that none need have died - or been put at risk - if the Department of Health had taken proper precautions in the manufacture of the growth hormone. Fifty families have been granted legal aid and are shortly to start proceedings against the Department of Health for medical negligence. The department denies liability.

An Independent investigation has produced evidence that the hormone was contaminated because there were no proper safeguards on the way in which it was made - despite prevailing medical knowledge which suggested a risk of transmitting CJD.

The therapy, which used an extract taken from human pituitary glands to promote growth, was first introduced in the late 1950s. And it worked. Patrick, for instance, put on eight inches.

But in 1968, 10 years after the hormone went into production, scientists researching CJD discovered that the disease could be transmitted through brain tissue.

By the 1970s there was clear evidence that the disease could be spread by brain tissue and other organs, including the cornea of the eye.

In 1985, after three people died in the United States from the disease, the therapy was stopped in Britain. A synthetic alternative replaced the human gland. Shortly afterwards, the first British casualty, a man aged 22, died. Scientists believe the cause is clear: the hormone therapy was infected with CJD because organs used to make it were taken from bodies of those who died from the disease.

In 1981, the Department of Health produced guidelines which recommended that no organs from CJD cadavers should be removed. But even after this, staff in four large mortuaries in the South-east say they were unaware of them.

Ivan Biddle spent nearly 20 years working in the mortuary at Barnet General Hospital. His mortuary also took cadavers from six mental hospitals in London and Hertfordshire, and he collected pituitaries from mortuaries at four neighbouring hospitals.

The incidence of CJD remains extremely low, but as a result of these collections the mortuary at Barnet dealt with the illness and other degenerative diseases of the brain with higher than usual frequency.

From 1970, Mr Biddle was collecting pituitaries from all the bodies coming into his mortuary. The glands - which were removed without permission of relatives, a technical breach of the Human Tissue Act - were stored in acetone and sent to Cambridge for processing into growth hormone.

'At no time . . . was I aware of the existence of any oral or written guidelines for the collection of these pituitary glands,' Mr Biddle said.

Three other mortuary workers who asked not to be named said they had not seen any guidelines on collection of the glands.

Last year, Mr Biddle approached the department to ask for permission to give his account to the families campaigning for compensation. He says he was told not to by a senior official because he would be breaching his duty of confidentiality.

One parent, Maureen Newman, wrote to Virginia Bottomley, Secretary of State for Health, asking for an interview. She sent her letter recorded delivery in September 1992, but has not yet received an acknowledgement. Her son, Terry, died in 1990. 'They knew there was a slight risk even in 1968,' she said. 'Now they should come out and say: 'It's our mistake'.'

Noel Baldwin hopes that the inquest into his son's death will force the department to acknowledge its responsibility.

'They would say that it wasn't their fault. All I really want is for someone to sit in front of me and explain why my son died,' he said.

(Photographs omitted)

VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition iPad app?
News
people
Life & Style
The new low cost smartphone of Motorola, 'Motorola Moto G', is displayed in Sao Paulo, Brazil on November 13, 2013. The smartphone, with dimensions 65.9mm W x 129.9mm H x 6.0 - 11.6mm D is equipped with a Qualcomm Snapdragon 400 with quad-core 1,2 GHz CPU, a 4.5-inch display and Android Operating System 4.3 and a suggested price of $ 179 USD.
techData assessing smartphones has revealed tens of millions of phones are at risk of being harvested
Arts & Entertainment
Jessica Pare as Megan Draper and Jon Hamm as the troubled, melancholy Don Draper
tvAnd six other questions we hope Mad Men series seven will answer
Arts & Entertainment
Cody and Paul Walker pictured in 2003.
film
News
David Beckham is planning to build a stadium in Miami’s port for a new football team he will own
news... in his fight for a football stadium in Miami's port area
Independent
Travel Shop
the manor
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on city breaks Find out more
santorini
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on chic beach resorts Find out more
sardina foodie
Up to 70% off luxury travel
on country retreats Find out more
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition iPad app?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

SEN Teaching Assistant

Negotiable: Randstad Education Group: TAs, LSAs and Support Workers needed in ...

Eye for Detail?

£41000 - £48000 per annum + Benefits: Pro-Recruitment Group: Eye for Detail? S...

NGO and Community Development in Cambodia

Unpaid: Kaya Responsible Travel: There are many small development projects in ...

Senior Infrastructure Consultant

£50000 - £65000 Per Annum potentially flexible for the right candidate: Clearw...

Day In a Page

Homelessness: Why is the supported lodgings lifeline under threat?

Why is the supported lodgings lifeline under threat?

Zubairi Sentongo swapped poverty in Uganda for homelessness in Britain. But a YMCA scheme connected him with a couple offering warmth and shelter
A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: When the world’s biggest shed took over Regent’s Park

A History of the First World War in 100 Moments

When the world’s biggest shed took over Regent’s Park
The pain of IVF

The pain of IVF

As an Italian woman vows to keep the babies from someone else’s eggs, Julian Baggini ponders how the reality of childbirth is often messier than the natural ideal
Supersize art

Is big better? Britain's latest super-sized art

The Kelpies are the latest addition to a growing army of giant sculptures. But naysayers are asking what a pair of gigantic horse heads tells us about Falkirk?
James Dean: Back on the big screen

James Dean: Back on the big screen

As 'Rebel without a Cause' is re-released, Geoffrey Macnab reveals how its star perfected his moody act
Catch-22: How the cult classic was adapted for the stage

How a cult classic was adapted for the stage

More than half a century after it was published 'Catch-22' will make its British stage debut next week
10 best activity books for children

10 best activity books for children

Keep little ones busy this bank holiday with one of these creative, educational and fun books
Arsenal 3 West Ham United 1: Five things we learnt from the battle between the London sides

Five things we learnt from Arsenal's win over West Ham

Arsenal still in driving seat for Champions League spot and Carroll can make late charge into England’s World Cup squad
Copa del Rey final: Barcelona are paying for their complacency and not even victory over Real Madrid will put things right

Pete Jenson on the Copa del Rey final

Barcelona are paying for their complacency and not even victory over Real Madrid will put things right
Rafa to reign? Ten issues clay courts will serve up this season

Rafa to reign? Ten issues clay courts will serve up this season

With the tennis circus now rolling on to the slowest surface, Paul Newman highlights who'll be making the headlines – and why
Exclusive: NHS faces financial disaster in 2015 as politicians urged to find radical solution

NHS faces financial disaster in 2015

Politicians urged to find radical solution
Ukraine crisis: How spontaneous are the pro-Russian protests breaking out in Ukraine’s east?

Ukraine crisis

How spontaneous are the pro-Russian protests breaking out in Ukraine’s east?
A History of the First World War in 100 moments: The first execution at the Tower of London for 167 years

The first execution at the Tower of London for 167 years

A history of the First World War in 100 moments
Fires could turn Amazon rainforest into a desert as human activity and climate change threaten ‘lungs of the world’, says study

New threat to the Amazon rainforest:

Fires that scorch the ‘lungs of the Earth’
Liverpool, Chelsea and Manchester City: And the winner of this season’s Premier League title will be...

Who’s in box seat now? The winner of the title will be ...

Who is in best shape to take the Premier League prize?