YOLO, Bitcoin and the bedroom tax: Chambers Dictionary adds 1,000 new definitions
The 13th edition of the dictionary, first published in 1872, marks the first time that new words have been actively crowdsourced
A British Summer of sporting failure has been recognised, with the word "underperform" joining "BYOD", "frape" and "schemie" in the latest edition of the Chambers Dictionary.
Underperform - to do less well than expected or thought possible, traditionally used in relation to the England football team – is one of 1,000 additions and updates to the UK’s number one selling unabridged dictionary.
Chambers’ formal recognition of words and meanings which signify changes in British cultural life extends to frape (altering the personal details on a social media site without the owner’s knowledge) and schemie (a working class youth from a council estate).
Those “born in the 1980s and 90s, who look down on their native middle class culture” in pursuit of a bohemian lifestyle are officially defined as "hipsters".
The Dictionary claims to be the first to make the definition of marriage gender-neutral, with the new description reading: “the ceremony, act or contract by which two people become married to each other”.
The definitions of husband (a man to whom someone is married) and wife (a woman to whom someone is married) have also been altered, to mark the legalisation of same sex marriages this year.
The 13th edition of the dictionary, first published in 1872, marks the first time that new words have been actively crowdsourced. A word must demonstrate a “lasting influence on a language in order to avoid short-lived or faddy expressions being admitted” according to Chambers.
New entries include "totes amazeballs", which Charlatans singer Tim Burgess claims to have first popularised, and words which indicate an increasingly casual attitude towards sex – "hookup" and "f***buddy".
Social media makes its mark with the acronym "YOLO" - you only live once - making its debut. The YOLO lifestyle encourages legal highs, friends with benefits, binges and payday loans, in contrast to those who spend their days couchsurfing.
"Milf" (a sexually attractive middle-aged woman) and "cougar" (a woman who chooses a male lover significantly younger than herself) are both added to the new edition.
"Boyf", "mare", "soz", and "whatevs" have all made it through the rigorous Chambers selection process, policed by a panel of wordsmiths including Gyles Brandreth and Ben Schott.
Topical political issues the bedroom tax and zero-hour contracts are deemed significant enough for entry.
The dictionary also has found cause to update its definitions of swear words including “s***” and “f***” and “twat” which encompasses its popularity as a verb.
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