Iain Duncan Smith (IDS) has resigned his front bench position as Work and Pensions Secretary six years after first taking up the post, 24 years after first entering parliament.
A leading campaigner for the leaving the EU, Mr Duncan Smith has been exceeding political expectations throughout his career.
Born in 1954, he started studying at HMS Conway at the age of 14, a merchant navy cadet school.
In 1975, he went to Sandhurst and joined the Scots Guards, serving in Northern Ireland during the Troubles and Zimbabwe, before leaving the army in 1981.
Before taking on Norman Tebbit's old seat of Chingford and Woodford Green in 1992, IDS worked for defence contractor GEC Marconi and property developer, Bellwinch homes.
Only a year into his first parliament, he threw away his chances at joining John Major's government by joining other Eurosceptic rebels who repeatedly refused to vote for the 1993 Maastricht Treaty.
At the time, IDS reportedly told his press secretary: "I'll fight for what I believe and if I don't get a job - so be it."
Unexpected party leader
His time on the backbenches was brought to an end by John Major's successor, William Hague, who made him shadow Secretary of State for Social Security after Labour election victory in 1997.
He was then promoted in 1999 to shadow Defence Secretary, a position he he held till Mr Hague stood down as Tory Party leader.
In a Corbyn-esque turn of events, IDS was voted into the leadership beating former Chancellor, Ken Clarke, helped by his strong Eurosceptic credentials.
While fighting against a perception of a lack of character and political strength, IDS had a transformative experience walking around Easterhouse Estate in Glasgow.
On witnessing deprived and poverty-stricken lives on this "sink estate" he discovered a personal mission to fight poverty and help the most vulnerable in society.
In a now much-lampooned speech to the Conservative Party Conference in 2002, IDS told a disenchanted party: "The quiet man is turning up the volume."
Despite all his efforts, he was ousted by Tory MPs in a vote of no-confidence in 2003.
A return to front bench politics
Following his demise, he created the Centre of Social Justice, a centre-right think tank which concentrated on welfare reform and social issues such as addiction, family breakdown and gang culture.
7 ways the Tories have ‘helped’ disabled people
7 ways the Tories have ‘helped’ disabled people
1/7 Closing Remploy factories
The Work and Pensions Secretary called time on Britain’s system of Remploy factories, which provided subsidised and sheltered employment to disabled people. People employed at the factories protested against their closure and said they provided gainful work. “Is it a kindness to stick people in some factory where they are not doing any work at all? Just making cups of coffee?” Mr Duncan Smith said at the time, defending the decision. “I promise you this is better.” The Remploy organisation was privatised and sold to American workfare provider Maximus, with the majority of the organisation’s factories closed. The future of the remaining sites is unclear
2/7 Scrapping the Independent Living Fund
The £320m Independent Living Fund was established in 1988 to give financial support to people with disabilities. It was scrapped on July 1 2015, with 18,000 often severely disabled people losing out by an average of £300 a week. The money was generally used to help pay for carers so people could live in communities rather than institutions. Councils will get a boost in funding to compensate but it will not cover the whole cost of the fund. This new cash also doesn’t have to be spent on the disabled
3/7 Cut payments for the disabled Access To Work scheme
Iain Duncan Smith is bringing forward a policy that will reduce payments to some disabled people from a scheme designed to help them into work. The £108m scheme, which helps 35,540 people, will be capped on a per-used basis, potentially hitting those with the more serious disabilities who currently receive the most help. The single biggest users of the fund are people who have difficulty seeing and hearing. The cut will come in from October 2015. The charity Disability UK says the scheme actually makes the Government money because the people who gain access to work tend pay tax that more than covers its cost. The DWP does not describe the reduction as a “cut” and says it will be able to spread the money more thinly and cover more people
4/7 Cut Employment and Support Allowance
The latest Budget included a £30 a week cut in disability benefits for some new claimants of Employment and Support Allowance (ESA). The Government says it is equalising the rate of disability benefits with Jobseekers Allowance because giving disabled people more help is a “perverse incentive”. The people affected by this cut are those assessed as having a limited capability for work but as being capable of some “work-related activity”. A group of prominent Catholics wrote to Mr Duncan Smith to say there was “no justification” for this cut. Mental health charity Mind, said the cut was “insulting and misguided”
5/7 Risk homelessness with a sharp increase disability benefit sanctions
Official figures in the first quarter of 2014 found a huge increase in sanctions against people reliant on ESA sickness benefit. The 15,955 sanctions were handed out in that period compared to 3,574 in the same period the year before, 2013 – a 4.5 times increase. The homelessness charity Crisis warned at the time that the sharp rise in temporary benefit cuts was “cruel and can leave people utterly destitute – without money even for food and at severe risk of homelessness”. “It is difficult to see how they are meant to help people prepare for work,” Matt Downie, director of policy at the charity added
6/7 Sending sick people to work because of broken fitness to work tests
In 2012 a government advisor appointed to review the Government’s Work Capability Assessment said the tests causing suffering by sending sick people back to work inappropriately. “There are certainly areas where it's still not working and I am sorry there are people going through a system which I think still needs improvement,” Professor Malcolm Harrington concluded. The tests are said to have improved since then, but as recently as this summer they are still coming in for criticism. In June the British Psychological Society said there was “now significant body of evidence that the WCA is failing to assess people’s fitness for work accurately and appropriately”. It called for a full overhaul of the way the tests are carried out. The WCA appeals system has also been fraught with controversy with a very high rate of overturns and delays lasting months and blamed for hardship
7/7 The bedroom tax
The Government’s benefit cut for people who it says are “under-occupying” their homes disproportionately affects disabled people. Statistics released last year show that around two-thirds of those affected by the under-occupancy penalty, widely known as the ‘bedroom tax’, are disabled. There have been a number of high profile cases of disabled people being moved out of specially adapted homes by the policy. In one case publicised by the Sunday People last week, a 48 year old man with cerebral palsy was forced to bathe in a paddling pool after the tax moved him out of his home with a walk-in shower. The Government says it has provided councils with a discretionary fund to help reduce the policy’s impact on disabled people, but cases continue to arise
On winning the 2010 general election, IDS was made Secretary of State for Work and pensions Pensions where he declared his wish to cut the number on unemployment benefits and continue his fight on poverty,
During his six year tenure at the Department of Work and Pensions, he courted public criticism and demagoguery with moves to cut and cap benefits.
Prior to his resignation, IDS endured a bruising battle with George Osborne and the Treasury department over his plan to introduce a universal credit system to replace six different means-tested benefits and tax credits.