A powder keg explodes in the heart of Europe

Andrew Gumbel on the world's folly in ignoring the signs of approaching disaster in Albania

Nobody has any control over the President any more. Some say he has gone crazy; others assert he always was. Rusty old tanks rumble down the rutted country tracks that pass for major roads on a mission to break up anti-government roadblocks and intimidate Kalashnikov-toting rebels into giving up their weapons.

A media blackout is imposed on the country, radio stations are pulled off the air, a handful of journalists are beaten up, an independent newspaper is firebombed and a favourite cafe for opposition figures and intellectuals is trashed by unidentified thugs.

The country is crawling with secret policemen, mafiosi, security patrols and army units. The shops are besieged and bread is running short. Only trans-shipments of cocaine and heroin continue as normal. Paranoid rumours of internecine power struggles and outside intervention abound. The government is dismissed but does not go away; the army chief of staff is fired and pursued by the courts for sedition; the head of the secret police is put in charge of running the country.

It's a jungle out there, and ordinary citizens have no choice but to sit at home, knock back alternate cups of coffee and brandy and wait for the craziness to pass. What country could this possibly be? It sounds like the backdrop for a piece of Latin American magic realism, but it isn't. It's happening, right now, and in the heart of Europe.

For two years, Albania has been a powder keg of corruption, organised crime, political repression and financial con-tricks. Somehow the outside world failed to see the disaster coming and insisted that the country was developing as a haven of peace and democracy.

Now the powder keg has exploded, and the fall-out has only begun. Much of Albania's economy has gone belly-up following the collapse of a string of fraudulent pyramid investment schemes linked to organised crime networks that inveigled the entire population. Law and order has collapsed because one half of the police and judiciary has been irredeemably corrupted, while the rest have been run out of the southern half of the country by furious crowds brandishing automatic weapons looted from police and army depots.

President Sali Berisha, meanwhile, persists in exercising his authority through political repression and brute force. In the chaotic aftermath of Albania's emancipation from communism in 1991-2, the United States was instrumental in promoting the virulently anti-communist Mr Berisha to the position he now commands. These days, the US has become increasingly vocal in its criticisms and Mr Berisha, according to political sources, has branded Washington an enemy along with the many others - foreign journalists, opposition leaders and intellectuals pushed into exile.

The deeper the crisis grows, the more Mr Berisha resembles Albania's old Stalinist dictator, Enver Hoxha, as he turns ruthlessly on colleagues he no longer trusts, blames his problems on conspiracies and promotes himself as the only true champion of the people.

Although he hates to be reminded of the fact, Mr Berisha owes many of his deeper political instincts to Hoxha's peculiar brand of Stalinist isolationism. He served as Hoxha's personal heart doctor, giving him privileged access and influence in the years up to the old man's death in 1985, and served as a Communist Party secretary for more than two decades.

He was close to Hoxha's successor, Ramiz Alia, and only joined the anti- communist movement on impulse after Alia had sent him to break up an anti- government demonstration at Tirana University.

Now the students are in ferment again, but this time Mr Berisha is on the other side of the fence. For five years he liked to portray himself as a man of the people, at ease in crowds and charismatic on a speaking podium (an echo, perhaps, of Hoxha's claim to be "knee to knee" with his fellow Albanians).

As the population has turned against him, however, Mr Berisha has been forced to concoct ever more conspiracy theories, blamingthe former Communist secret police, the Socialist opposition, murky terrorist groups and now these supposed "foreign agents".

The state of emergency is a coup in reverse, an attempt to crush the rebellion before it crushes him. The use of force is highly dangerous, not least because of the potential for spill-over into Kosovo, Macedonia and the wider Balkans.

The lawlessness of a Colombia or a Somalia has landed in the middle of our continent. The calamity should have been foreseen, but wasn't. And now we will all have to find a way to deal with it.

Suggested Topics
Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
News
people
News
A survey carried out by Sainsbury's Finance found 20% of new university students have never washed their own clothes, while 14% cannot even boil an egg
science...and the results are not as pointless as that sounds
News
politicsIs David Cameron trying to prove he's down with the kids?
News
Businessman at desk circa 1950s
news
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Sales Development Manager - North Kent - OTE £19K

£16000 - £19000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A unique opportunity has arisen...

Tradewind Recruitment: Maths Teacher

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: Tradewind are working with this secondary s...

Tradewind Recruitment: Science Teacher

Negotiable: Tradewind Recruitment: We are working with a school that needs a t...

Recruitment Genius: Recording Engineer

£20000 - £25000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A long established media compan...

Day In a Page

Woman who was sent to three Nazi death camps describes how she escaped the gas chamber

Auschwitz liberation 70th anniversary

Woman sent to three Nazi death camps describes surviving gas chamber
DSK, Dodo the Pimp, and the Carlton Hotel

The inside track on France's trial of the year

Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Dodo the Pimp, and the Carlton Hotel:
As provocative now as they ever were

Sarah Kane season

Why her plays are as provocative now as when they were written
Murder of Japanese hostage has grim echoes of a killing in Iraq 11 years ago

Murder of Japanese hostage has grim echoes of another killing

Japanese mood was against what was seen as irresponsible trips to a vicious war zone
Syria crisis: Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more refugees as one young mother tells of torture by Assad regime

Celebrities call on David Cameron to take more Syrian refugees

One young mother tells of torture by Assad regime
The enemy within: People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back – with promising results

The enemy within

People who hear voices in their heads are being encouraged to talk back
'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

'In Auschwitz you got used to anything'

Survivors of the Nazi concentration camp remember its horror, 70 years on
Autumn/winter menswear 2015: The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore

Autumn/winter menswear 2015

The uniforms that make up modern life come to the fore
'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

'I'm gay, and plan to fight military homophobia'

Army general planning to come out
Iraq invasion 2003: The bloody warnings six wise men gave to Tony Blair as he prepared to launch poorly planned campaign

What the six wise men told Tony Blair

Months before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, experts sought to warn the PM about his plans. Here, four of them recall that day
25 years of The Independent on Sunday: The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century

25 years of The Independent on Sunday

The stories, the writers and the changes over the last quarter of a century
Homeless Veterans appeal: 'Really caring is a dangerous emotion in this kind of work'

Homeless Veterans appeal

As head of The Soldiers' Charity, Martin Rutledge has to temper compassion with realism. He tells Chris Green how his Army career prepared him
Wu-Tang Clan and The Sexual Objects offer fans a chance to own the only copies of their latest albums

Smash hit go under the hammer

It's nice to pick up a new record once in a while, but the purchasers of two latest releases can go a step further - by buying the only copy
Geeks who rocked the world: Documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry

The geeks who rocked the world

A new documentary looks back at origins of the computer-games industry
Belle & Sebastian interview: Stuart Murdoch reveals how the band is taking a new direction

Belle & Sebastian is taking a new direction

Twenty years ago, Belle & Sebastian was a fey indie band from Glasgow. It still is – except today, as prime mover Stuart Murdoch admits, it has a global cult following, from Hollywood to South Korea