Landmarks in Robert Mugabe's life

1924 Robert Gabriel Mugabe is born in Kutama, Zimbabwe (then Southern Rhodesia).



1945 He leaves St Francis Xavier College, Kutama, having qualified as a teacher.



1949 Obtains scholarship to University College of Fort Hare, South Africa.



1957 Moves to Ghana; meets his future wife, Sally Hayfron.



1960 Gives first political speech while home on holiday. Joins National Democratic Party under Joshua Nkomo, becoming publicity secretary.



1961 Marries Sally Hayfron. Zimbabwe African People's Union formed to replace banned NDP.



1962 Zapu banned; restrictions placed on leaders.



1963 Zimbabwe African National Union formed as rival to Zapu.



1964 Mugabe and others detained.



1966 Three-year-old Nhamo Mugabe dies in Ghana; imprisoned Mugabe is denied permission to attend his son's funeral.



1974 Detainees released from prison for settlement talks.



1975 Herbert Chitepo, head of Zanu in exile, is assassinated in Zambia. Mugabe and Edgar Tekere leave Rhodesia to join guerrillas in Mozambique.



1977 Mugabe gains control of Zanu.



1978 Zanu military leader Rex Nhongo (aka Solomon Mujuru) crushes internal revolt aimed at toppling Mugabe.



1979 Lancaster House conference takes place in London. Zanu's military leader Josiah Tongogara dies.



1980 Mugabe becomes prime minister of independent Zimbabwe.



1981 Apartheid South Africa embarks on campaign to destabilise Mugabe.



1982 Nkomo sacked from government following discovery of arms caches in Matabeleland. Mugabe unleashes North Korean-trained Fifth Brigade in a brutal campaign against dissidents.



1987 Mugabe and Nkomo sign Unity Accord, merging to form Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front. Mugabe changes constitution, becoming executive president.



1988 War veterans launch campaign for recognition of role in liberating Zimbabwe. "Willowgate" corruption scandal exposed.



1990 Nelson Mandela released from prison in South Africa. World Bank's Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (Esap) begins in Zimbabwe.



1992 Sally Mugabe dies of kidney failure.



1995 Street riots in Harare against rising prices and unemployment.



1996 Mugabe marries his secretary Grace Marufu in lavish ceremony at Kutama.



1997 New Labour government under Tony Blair wins UK election.



1998 Mugabe sends troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo to intervene in the civil war and plunder its riches.



1999 Repressive action against Zimbabwe's media and judiciary increases. Movement for Democratic Change is formed. Relations with Britain deteriorate.



2000 Constitutional reforms rejected by electorate. Squatters seize white-owned farms. Zanu-PF wins narrow victory against MDC in parliamentary elections.



2002 Parliament passes law limiting press freedom. European Union imposes limited sanctions. Mugabe re-elected in polls condemned as flawed .



2004 Leader of the MDC Morgan Tsvangirai acquitted of treason charges.



2005 Zanu-PF wins two-thirds of votes in parliamentary election. Urban "clean up" programme leaves thousands homeless.



2007 MDC leaders hospitalised after rally arrests. Power cuts throughout Zimbabwe. Inflation soars. Zanu-PF and MDC hold talks in South Africa.



2008 In March, the first-ever defeat for Mugabe in a parliamentary election.

Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
PROMOTED VIDEO
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooks
ebooksA year of political gossip, levity and intrigue from the sharpest pen in Westminster
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating
and  

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Account Manager

£20000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This full service social media ...

Recruitment Genius: Data Analyst - Online Marketing

£24000 - £35000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: We are 'Changemakers in retail'...

Austen Lloyd: Senior Residential Conveyancer

Very Competitive: Austen Lloyd: Senior Conveyancer - South West We are see...

Austen Lloyd: Residential / Commercial Property Solicitor

Excellent Salary: Austen Lloyd: DORSET MARKET TOWN - SENIOR PROPERTY SOLICITOR...

Day In a Page

Isis in Iraq: Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment by militants

'Jilan killed herself in the bathroom. She cut her wrists and hanged herself'

Yazidi girls killing themselves to escape rape and imprisonment
Ed Balls interview: 'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'

Ed Balls interview

'If I think about the deficit when I'm playing the piano, it all goes wrong'
He's behind you, dude!

US stars in UK panto

From David Hasselhoff to Jerry Hall
Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz: What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?

Grace Dent's Christmas Quiz

What are you – a festive curmudgeon or top of the tree?
Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Nasa planning to build cloud cities in airships above Venus

Planet’s surface is inhospitable to humans but 30 miles above it is almost perfect
Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history - clocks, rifles, frogmen’s uniforms and colonial helmets

Clocks, rifles, swords, frogmen’s uniforms

Surrounded by high-rise flats is a little house filled with Lebanon’s history
Return to Gaza: Four months on, the wounds left by Israel's bombardment have not yet healed

Four months after the bombardment, Gaza’s wounds are yet to heal

Kim Sengupta is reunited with a man whose plight mirrors the suffering of the Palestinian people
Gastric surgery: Is it really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

Is gastric surgery really the answer to the UK's obesity epidemic?

Critics argue that it’s crazy to operate on healthy people just to stop them eating
Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction Part 2 - now LIVE

Homeless Veterans appeal: Christmas charity auction

Bid on original art, or trips of a lifetime to Africa or the 'Corrie' set, and help Homeless Veterans
Pantomime rings the changes to welcome autistic theatre-goers

Autism-friendly theatre

Pantomime leads the pack in quest to welcome all
The week Hollywood got scared and had to grow up a bit

The week Hollywood got scared and had to grow up a bit

Sony suffered a chorus of disapproval after it withdrew 'The Interview', but it's not too late for it to take a stand, says Joan Smith
From Widow Twankey to Mother Goose, how do the men who play panto dames get themselves ready for the performance of a lifetime?

Panto dames: before and after

From Widow Twankey to Mother Goose, how do the men who play panto dames get themselves ready for the performance of a lifetime?
Thirties murder mystery novel is surprise runaway Christmas hit

Thirties murder mystery novel is surprise runaway Christmas hit

Booksellers say readers are turning away from dark modern thrillers and back to the golden age of crime writing
Anne-Marie Huby: 'Charities deserve the best,' says founder of JustGiving

Anne-Marie Huby: 'Charities deserve the best'

Ten million of us have used the JustGiving website to donate to good causes. Its co-founder says that being dynamic is as important as being kind
The botanist who hunts for giant trees at Kew Gardens

The man who hunts giants

A Kew Gardens botanist has found 25 new large tree species - and he's sure there are more out there