Stephen Fry has explained the psychological biases behind leading Donald Trump to believe his own hype.
The British comedian described the Dunning-Kruger effect, which leads the least proficient people to overestimate their own abilities.
In a video entitled "Will Trump's lies cost lives? Can we break his spell? Killer cognitive biases," Fry used the example of McArthur Wheeler, who robbed two banks after learning lemon juice could be used as an invisible ink and believing it would hide him from CCTV.
“When the police found him he was shocked,” Fry said.
The 59-year-old went on to explain how the case led to the discovery of the Dunning-Kruger effect and why it is relevant to Mr Trump's presidency.
Professors David Dunning and Justin Kruger "found that the least proficient students dramatically overestimated their own ability," Fry said.
"The skills they lacked were the same skills required to recognise their incompetence."
He added: "The incompetent are often blessed with an inappropriate confidence buoyed by something that feels to them like knowledge. Could the Dunning-Kruger effect explain some of Trump's actions?"
Mr Fry also explained how the President is affected by salience bias, where people focus on shocking or negative news rather than the positive.
He pointed to the example of Mr Trump's rhetoric about crimes committed by immigrants and explained that immigrants actually reduce the crime rate.
"The cost of our distorted view may include a $20bn border wall," Fry added.
The biggest names involved in the Trump-Russia investigation
The biggest names involved in the Trump-Russia investigation
1/11 Paul Manafort
Mr Manafort is a Republican strategist and former Trump campaign manager. He resigned from that post over questions about his extensive lobbying overseas, including in Ukraine where he represented pro-Russian interests.
2/11 Mike Flynn
Mr Flynn was named as Trump's national security adviser but was forced to resign from his post for inappropriate communication with Russian Ambassador to the US Sergey Kislyak. He had misrepresented a conversation he had with Mr Kislyak to Vice President Mike Pence, telling him wrongly that he had not discussed sanctions with the Russian.
3/11 Sergey Kislyak
Mr Kislyak, the Russian ambassador to the US, is at the centre of the web said to connect President Donald Trump's campaign with Russia.
4/11 Roger Stone
Mr Stone is a former Trump adviser who worked on the political campaigns of Richard Nixon, George HW Bush, and Ronald Reagan. Mr Stone claimed repeatedly in the final months of the campaign that he had backchannel communications with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange and that he knew the group was going to dump damaging documents to the campaign of Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton - which did happen. Mr Stone also had contacts with the hacker Guccier 2.0 on Twitter, who claimed to have hacked the DNC and is linked to Russian intelligence services.
5/11 Jeff Sessions
The US attorney general was forced to recuse himself from the Trump-Russia investigation after it was learned that he had lied about meeting with Russian Ambassador to the US Sergey Kislyak.
6/11 Carter Page
Mr Page is a former advisor to the Trump campaign and has a background working as an investment banker at Merrill Lynch. Mr Page met with Russian Ambassador to the US Sergey Kislyak during the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland. Mr Page had invested in oil companies connected to Russia and had admitted that US Russia sanctions had hurt his bottom line.
7/11 Jeffrey "JD" Gorden
Mr Gordon met with Russian Ambassador to the US Sergey Kislyak during the 2016 Republian National Convention to discuss how the US and Russia could work together to combat Islamist extremism should then-Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump win the election. The meeting came days before a massive leak of DNC emails that has been connected to Russia.
8/11 Jared Kushner
Mr Kushner is President Donald Trump's son-in-law and a key adviser to the White House. He met with a Russian banker appointed by Russian President Vladimir Putin in December. Mr Kushner has said he did so in his role as an adviser to Mr Trump while the bank says he did so as a private developer. Mr Kushner has also volunteered to testify in the Senate about his role helping to arrange meetings between Trump advisers and Russian Ambassador to the US Sergey Kislyak.
9/11 James Comey
Mr Comey was fired from his post as head of the FBI by President Donald Trump. The timing of Mr Comey's firing raised questions around whether or not the FBI's investigation into the Trump campaign may have played a role in the decision.
10/11 Preet Bharara
Mr Bahara refused, alongside 46 other US district attorney's across the country, to resign once President Donald Trump took office after previous assurances from Mr Trump that he would keep his job. Mr Bahara had been heading up several investigations including one into one of President Donald Trump's favorite cable television channels Fox News. Several investigations would lead back to that district, too, including those into Mr Trump's campaign ties to Russia, and Mr Trump's assertion that Trump Tower was wiretapped on orders from his predecessor.
11/11 Sally Yates
Ms Yates, a former Deputy Attorney General, was running the Justice Department while President Donald Trump's pick for attorney general awaited confirmation. Ms Yates was later fired by Mr Trump from her temporary post over her refusal to implement Mr Trump's first travel ban. She had also warned the White House about potential ties former National Security Adviser Michael Flynn to Russia after discovering those ties during the FBI's investigation into the Trump campaign's connections to Russia.
The comedian also discussed how Mr Trump's uses repetition and incendiary statements as "a powerful diversion."
"Complete ignorance breeds confidence," he added.
"When Trump raises fear of immigrant terrorists," Fry said, "keep in mind that since 9/11, no one has died in a terrorist attack by immigrants from the countries he wants to ban.
"Meanwhile the environmental protection agency has prevented hundreds of thousands of early deaths from air pollution alone."
Paraphrasing American historian Daniel J Boorstin, Fry concluded: "The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance. It is the illusion of knowledge."Reuse content