Bosnia's other war blurs the lines of battle: Tony Barber in Zagreb on clashes between the Croat and Muslim 'allies'

IT IS supposed to be an international frontier dividing two separate, sovereign states. But when you cross from Croatia into south- western Bosnia-Herzegovina, there are often no guards on duty. And when they are there, they wave you straight through if your car has Croatian plates.

On the Bosnian side of the border, you use Croatian dinars to pay for a coffee. Ask a man in combat gear for directions, and he will probably be a member of the Croatian Defence Council (HVO), a Bosnian Croat force armed and supported by the Croatian authorities in Zagreb. Look around the cafes, small shops and petrol stations, and you will see the red, white and blue Croatian flag with its distinctive chequerboard symbol. Some local Croats, though citizens of Bosnia, own Croatian passports issued in the past year.

These towns and villages are part of a Croatian mini-state in Bosnia proclaimed last July under the name of Herzeg-Bosnia. The area is not officially part of Croatia, but it is in most respects quite indistinguishable from its mother republic. If there is a difference, it is that more fighters drive around in stolen vehicles than in most of Croatia itself. You are also more likely to run into members of the paramilitary wing of the Croatian Party of Rights (HOS), an ultra-rightist political movement inspired by a dream of a Greater Croatian state.

In short, Herzeg-Bosnia is the Croatian mirror image of the rebel state the Bosnian Serbs have set up in northern and eastern Bosnia. Franjo Tudjman, the Croatian President, has not discouraged what amounts to the Croatian annexation of this area. In fact, the Zagreb government includes officials from Croatian- ruled parts of Bosnia. At various stages in the past 18 months, Mr Tudjman has negotiated with the Serbs - supposedly his mortal enemies - to effect a Serb-Croat partition of Bosnia.

The Bosnian Croats tried to speed up this process last week by ordering all Muslim military units to submit to their control in areas assigned to the Croats under the Geneva peace plan proposed by Lord Owen and Cyrus Vance. The order came from Bosnia's own Defence Minister, Bozo Rajic, a Croat who has never bothered to visit Sarajevo. Like other Croats nominally loyal to Bosnia's government, he prefers to base himself in Mostar, the capital of Herzeg-Bosnia.

Bosnia's Muslims and Croats are united in a military alliance against the Serbs, but their relationship has been tense throughout the war. In some areas, such as Gradacac in northern Bosnia, they have fought side by side. In the south-west and centre, however, they have often been at each other's throats. When violence erupted in Prozor in central Bosnia last October, the Muslims accused the Croats of engaging in the 'ethnic cleansing' that Serbian forces have practised elsewhere in the republic. The latest Muslim-Croat battles have lasted almost two weeks, and an attempt by Lord Owen and Mr Vance to broker a ceasefire last Wednesday came to nothing.

'Vance and Owen said they were very surprised by this conflict,' said Bosnia's Muslim Foreign Minister, Haris Silajdzic. 'I emphasise the word conflict because this is not just a misunderstanding any more. It was a well- organised attack by HVO militant groups. Geneva is being used to make a state within a state, which is unacceptable for Bosnia-Herzegovina, regardless of who wants to do it.' For their part, the Croats accuse the Muslims not only of provoking the clashes but also (in language reminiscent of Serbian claims) of aiming to turn Bosnia into a Muslim-dominated state. Miro Lasic, a Croatian member of Bosnia's presidency, said last week that Muslims outnumbered Croats in the Bosnian diplomatic and consular service by 20 to one. Even in the old Yugoslavia, he said, the Serbs never increased their representation over the Croats to more than six to one.

If Western audiences are surprised by the Muslim-Croat clashes, it may be the fault of governments and analysts who, in public at least, have emphasised Serbian atrocities and expansionist policies in Bosnia to the virtual exclusion of all other issues. Abominable though those actions are, they deflect attention from the crucial question of whether either Serbs or Croats sincerely regard Bosnia's Muslims as an equal, separate nation.

Many see the Muslims as Slavs whose conversion to Islam under Ottoman rule means that they are somehow still Serbs or Croats to be returned to their respective folds. In this war, the Muslims are victims of Zagreb as well as Belgrade.

(Photograph omitted)

Suggested Topics
Start your day with The Independent, sign up for daily news emails
  • Get to the point
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Recruitment Genius: Senior Digital Marketing Consultant

£28000 - £45000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: A Senior Digital Marketing Cons...

Recruitment Genius: Assistant Stores Keeper

£16640 - £18500 per annum: Recruitment Genius: An Assistant Stores Keeper is r...

Recruitment Genius: Claims Administrator

£16000 - £18500 per annum: Recruitment Genius: This is an excellent opportunit...

Recruitment Genius: Software Developer - C# / ASP.NET / SQL

£17000 - £30000 per annum: Recruitment Genius: Developer required to join a bu...

Day In a Page

'It was first time I had ever tasted chocolate. I kept a piece, and when Amsterdam was liberated, I gave it to the first Allied soldier I saw'

Bread from heaven

Dutch survivors thank RAF for World War II drop that saved millions
Britain will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power - Labour

How 'the Axe' helped Labour

UK will be 'run for the wealthy and powerful' if Tories retain power
Rare and exclusive video shows the horrific price paid by activists for challenging the rule of jihadist extremists in Syria

The price to be paid for challenging the rule of extremists

A revolution now 'consuming its own children'
Welcome to the world of Megagames

Welcome to the world of Megagames

300 players take part in Watch the Skies! board game in London
'Nymphomaniac' actress reveals what it was really like to star in one of the most explicit films ever

Charlotte Gainsbourg on 'Nymphomaniac'

Starring in one of the most explicit films ever
Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers

Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi

The Emirates' out-of-sight migrant workers helping to build the dream projects of its rulers
Vince Cable interview: Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'

Vince Cable exclusive interview

Charging fees for employment tribunals was 'a very bad move'
Iwan Rheon interview: Game of Thrones star returns to his Welsh roots to record debut album

Iwan Rheon is returning to his Welsh roots

Rheon is best known for his role as the Bastard of Bolton. It's gruelling playing a sadistic torturer, he tells Craig McLean, but it hasn't stopped him recording an album of Welsh psychedelia
Russell Brand's interview with Ed Miliband has got everyone talking about The Trews

Everyone is talking about The Trews

Russell Brand's 'true news' videos attract millions of viewers. But today's 'Milibrand' interview introduced his resolutely amateurish style to a whole new crowd
Morne Hardenberg interview: Cameraman for BBC's upcoming show Shark on filming the ocean's most dangerous predator

It's time for my close-up

Meet the man who films great whites for a living
Increasing numbers of homeless people in America keep their mobile phones on the streets

Homeless people keep mobile phones

A homeless person with a smartphone is a common sight in the US. And that's creating a network where the 'hobo' community can share information - and fight stigma - like never before
'Queer saint' Peter Watson left his mark on British culture by bankrolling artworld giants

'Queer saint' who bankrolled artworld giants

British culture owes a huge debt to Peter Watson, says Michael Prodger
Pushkin Prizes: Unusual exchange programme aims to bring countries together through culture

Pushkin Prizes brings countries together

Ten Scottish schoolchildren and their Russian peers attended a creative writing workshop in the Highlands this week
14 best kids' hoodies

14 best kids' hoodies

Don't get caught out by that wind on the beach. Zip them up in a lightweight top to see them through summer to autumn
Robert Fisk in Abu Dhabi: The acceptable face of the Emirates

The acceptable face of the Emirates

Has Abu Dhabi found a way to blend petrodollars with principles, asks Robert Fisk