City Life Chengdu: China revives its imperial past with food revolution

SICHUAN PROVINCE is famous across China for its mouth-burning, eye-rolling chillies. Cauldrons packed with the tiny red pods bubble everywhere, from roadside pit stops to steamy modern restaurants and family kitchens.

The Sichuanese developed a fiery attitude to life in general. In 1966, when China plunged into the disastrous Cultural Revolution, it was Sichuan that led the way in mass persecutions. And now, as the latest revolution brings economic freedoms to the masses, it is Sichuan that is leading a culinary renaissance. Chengdu, the provincial capital, is the home of China's best cookery school.

A degree at the Sichuan Higher Institute of Cuisine requires tens of thousands of hours of chopping practice and mastery of thousands of recipes, but it translates into access to some of the best jobs in the rapidly expanding restaurant business.

A few years ago, grabbing a bite after 8pm was a challenge. Even restaurants that catered to the tourist trade were staffed by surly waitresses. Now incomes have risen sharply, and there are restaurants on every street corner. Even tiny townships boast an eating establishment or two. The sector is growing at a rate of more than 10 per cent a year.

The food revolution prompted Lu Yi, vice-president of the Sichuan school, to abandon a medical career in favour of food. With the going rate for a well-trained chef hovering at around four times the average wage, Mr Lu has three applicants for each of his 1,600 places.

Mouth-watering smells of chilli pork and twice-cooked Mandarin fish waft down to his office from the cooking labs. A peek into the classes reveals first-year students getting to grips with the peppers and spices needed to run every Sichuan kitchen. Upstairs, teachers are demonstrating Western pastry techniques and the art of creating a perfect dough stick .

Lu and his students point to China's lengthy obsession with food as a guarantee for their future. Cooking was elevated to a fine art during the Zhou dynasty, from the 11th to 3rd centuries BC, when the imperial kitchen boasted a staff of more than 2,000. They turned out a vast range of dishes from minced beef to diced fish to dog, pheasant and hare.

The dynasty also developed a complex system of complementary and opposing tastes - sweet, sour, salty, spicy and bitter. These Five Tastes remain the basis of Chinese cooking to this day, although four major regional cuisines, from Sichuan, Shanghai, Peking and Canton, emerged. Right up until the Communist revolution in 1949, master chefs jealously guarded the secrets of how they balanced the Five Tastes. An apprentice had to prove his loyalty often through decades of menial tasks in the kitchen.

The fine art of food was brought to a grinding halt by the Communists. As China progressed through the political purges and economic disasters of the 1958 Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution of 1966 to 1976, the art of cooking fell by the wayside. The Communists often persecuted high-profile chefs for their bourgeois past.Food was scarce and state- sanctioned restaurants were few and far between.

Only when Deng Xiaoping, a Sichuan native, came to power in the early 1980s did the position slowly start improving. Deng, who was addicted to the hot and spicy cooking of his home region, frequented Peking's most famous Sichuan restaurant, in a former prince's palace near the Forbidden City. But the forces of economic reform that he unleashed gradually brought down his favourite establishment, as competing Sichuan restaurants proliferated all over the capital.

China has moved on so much that now a Hong Kong entrepreneur has set up a members-only club on the site. It costs pounds 10,000 a year for the opportunity to eat as China's past leaders once did.

The Banksy image in Folkestone before it was vandalised
Life and Style

Sales of the tablet are set to fall again, say analysts

Brian Harvey turned up at Downing Street today demanding to speak to the Prime Minister

Met Police confirm that there was a 'minor disturbance'

Life and Style
A street vendor in Mexico City sells Dorilocos, which are topped with carrot, jimaca, cucumber, peanuts, pork rinds, spices and hot sauce
food + drink

Trend which requires crisps, a fork and a strong stomach is sweeping Mexico's streets

Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooksAn unforgettable anthology of contemporary reportage
Arts and Entertainment
George Lucas poses with a group of Star Wars-inspired Disney characters at Disney's Hollywood Studios in 2010

George Lucas criticises the major Hollywood film studios

football West Brom vs Man Utd match report: Blind grabs point, but away form a problem for Van Gaal
Arts and Entertainment
Bloom Time: Mira Sorvino
tvMira Sorvino on leaving movie roles for 'The Intruders'
Arts and Entertainment
Gotham is coming to UK shores this autumn
tvGotham, episode 2, review
First woman: Valentina Tereshkova
peopleNASA guinea pig Kate Greene thinks it might fly
Chris Grayling, Justice Secretary: 'There are pressures which we are facing but there is not a crisis'

Does Chris Grayling realise what a vague concept he is dealing with?

Life and Style
The charity Sands reports that 11 babies are stillborn everyday in the UK
lifeEleven babies are stillborn every day in the UK, yet no one speaks about this silent tragedy
Blackpool is expected to become one of the first places to introduce the Government’s controversial new Public Space Protection Orders (PSPOs)

Parties threaten resort's image as a family destination

Life and Style
Northern soul mecca the Wigan Casino
fashionGone are the punks, casuals, new romantics, ravers, skaters, crusties. Now all kids look the same
Life and Style

I Am Bread could actually be a challenging and nuanced title

Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

Primary Teacher Cornwall

£21500 - £40000 per annum: Randstad Education Plymouth: ***KS1 & KS2 Teachers ...

Year 5 Teacher

£80 - £140 per day: Randstad Education Leeds: Year 5 Teacher KS2 teaching job...

Software Developer

£35000 - £45000 Per Annum Pensions Scheme After 6 Months: Clearwater People So...

Systems Analyst / Business Analyst - Central London

£35000 - £37000 per annum + Benefits: Ashdown Group: Systems Analyst / Busines...

Day In a Page

Two super-sized ships have cruised into British waters, but how big can these behemoths get?

Super-sized ships: How big can they get?

Two of the largest vessels in the world cruised into UK waters last week
British doctors on brink of 'cure' for paralysis with spinal cord treatment

British doctors on brink of cure for paralysis

Sufferers can now be offered the possibility of cure thanks to a revolutionary implant of regenerative cells
Ranked seventh in world’s best tourist cities - not London, or Edinburgh, but Salisbury

Salisbury ranked seventh in world’s best tourist cities

The city is home to one of the four surviving copies of the Magna Carta, along with the world’s oldest mechanical clock
Let's talk about loss

We need to talk about loss

Secrecy and silence surround stillbirth
Will there be an all-female mission to Mars?

Will there be an all-female mission to Mars?

Women may be better suited to space travel than men are
Oscar Pistorius sentencing: The athlete's wealth and notoriety have provoked a long overdue debate on South African prisons

'They poured water on, then electrified me...'

If Oscar Pistorius is sent to jail, his experience will not be that of other inmates
James Wharton: The former Guard now fighting discrimination against gay soldiers

The former Guard now fighting discrimination against gay soldiers

Life after the Army has brought new battles for the LGBT activist James Wharton
Ebola in the US: Panic over the virus threatens to infect President Obama's midterms

Panic over Ebola threatens to infect the midterms

Just one person has died, yet November's elections may be affected by what Republicans call 'Obama's Katrina', says Rupert Cornwell
Premier League coaches join the RSC to swap the tricks of their trades

Darling, you were fabulous! But offside...

Premier League coaches are joining the RSC to learn acting skills, and in turn they will teach its actors to play football. Nick Clark finds out why
How to dress with authority: Kirsty Wark and Camila Batmanghelidjh discuss the changing role of fashion in women's workwear

How to dress with authority

Kirsty Wark and Camila Batmanghelidjh discuss the changing role of fashion in women's workwear
New book on Joy Division's Ian Curtis sheds new light on the life of the late singer

New book on Ian Curtis sheds fresh light on the life of the late singer

'Joy Division were making art... Ian was for real' says author Jon Savage
Sean Harris: A rare interview with British acting's secret weapon

Sean Harris: A rare interview with British acting's secret weapon

The Bafta-winner talks Hollywood, being branded a psycho, and how Barbra Streisand is his true inspiration
Tim Minchin, interview: The musician, comedian and world's favourite ginger is on scorching form

Tim Minchin interview

For a no-holds-barred comedian who is scathing about woolly thinking and oppressive religiosity, he is surprisingly gentle in person
Boris Johnson's boozing won't win the puritan vote

Boris's boozing won't win the puritan vote

Many of us Brits still disapprove of conspicuous consumption – it's the way we were raised, says DJ Taylor
Ash frontman Tim Wheeler reveals how he came to terms with his father's dementia

Tim Wheeler: Alzheimer's, memories and my dad

Wheeler's dad suffered from Alzheimer's for three years. When he died, there was only one way the Ash frontman knew how to respond: with a heartfelt solo album