East Germany's gateway to the world closed by violence: John Eisenhammer reports on the racism that is ravaging the city of Rostock

THE PRIDE of the East has fallen. Once hailed by Communist leaders as East Germany's 'gateway to the world', the Baltic city of Rostock - the symbol of the country's internationalism and economic prowess - has become, after the past week's orgy of xenophobic violence, the ugly symbol of eastern Germany's collapse.

The last vestiges of dignity were consumed in the fires of a refugee hostel, wrecked by hundreds of baying youths and applauded by thousands of local onlookers.

The citizens of Rostock used to live in one of Communist Germany's most privileged cities. Rostock, along with East Berlin and Leipzig, was the recipient of extra funds from a bankrupt regime, desperate to maintain its handful of urban showcases for the outside world.

Now the city languishes in the poorest, most dismal region of reunited Germany - the state of Mecklenburg. In November 1990, despite being the largest city in the state - and therefore sure of its claim - Rostock was not chosen to be Mecklenburg's capital. That honour went to inland Schwerin. It was the final insult.

The vast housing estate of Lichtenhagen, stage for the racist outrages against the refugee hostel in its midst, is itself a product of that Communist pride and privilege. Built in the Seventies, these long rows of concrete barracks offered, by East German standards, above average accommodation to the favoured 20,000 inhabitants.

Just a few minutes to the east of Lichtenhagen stand the cavernous Warnow shipyards. They were part of the huge East German shipbuilding kombinat, centered on Rostock. Before reunification, 55,000 people used to work in the yards. Now just 5,000 are employed there. Moored alongside the Warnow yard are several newly completed vessels ordered by Moscow (the former Soviet Union used to account for 80 per cent of the industry's orders). Nobody appears to want them any more.

Clambering past the smashed, dripping water pipes and up the charred stairs to the 11th floor of the refugee hostel where 200 people, mainly Romanian gypsies, lived before they were driven away by the mob, you are met with a view that sweeps over the shipyards, across the mouth of the River Warnow to the port.

In the late Fifties, the then leader of the German Democratic Republic, Walter Ulbricht, called upon the families of Rostock to collect rocks for the construction of the country's deep-sea harbour. After the division of Germany, the Communist east suddenly found it had no port that could take quantities of ocean-going vessels. Hamburg and Bremen were on the western side.

Although Rostock had a long tradition of sea-faring and trading - it was a member of the medieval Hanseatic league, a powerful political and commercial grouping of Germanic towns - it was never an important port.

The Communist authorities poured scarce funds into their 'gateway to the world'. Through it went much of East Germany's trade with the Soviet Union and the far-flung reaches of the Socialist empire, Vietnam, Angola, Cuba. The shipyards were also largely created by the Communists, to build vessels for Moscow as part of war reparations.

In the Seventies, Erich Honecker poured further scarce funds into building the motorway linking Rostock to East Berlin and the southern industrial regions. By East German standards, Rostock was booming, benefiting from the state-planned concentration of the country's entire shipping and ocean-going industry around the city.

Now, the harbour cranes stand like giant skeletons in an industrial graveyard. Many have not moved for more than two years. Where once up to 30 ships a day would steam into the busy quays, with countless more waiting on the Baltic horizon for a berth, the port is lucky these days if more than a handful straggle in. Up to 25 million tons were handled a year in the late Eighties. This year the port hopes to achieve a tenth of that total. Weeds have grown up around the yellowed wheels of railway carriages that have nowhere to be shunted to.

Soon after reunification, the ports of Hamburg and Bremen sent smiling, blue-suited executives with offers of help for Rostock, while at the same time they cut their rates in a short, brutal campaign to destroy the potential competitor. Rostock never stood a chance. Just two days ago came news that the sale of the Warnow yards to the Norwegian company Kvaerner, due to take effect this week, had been postponed, with the purchaser seeking even tougher conditions.

Many workers have already left for western ports, now doing better than ever. Others, among the thousands laid off, are still in places like Lichtenhagen.

Real unemployment there is around 50 per cent. The total is also swelled by those laid off by the former fishing and processing kombinat, a little further down the coast. It used to have up to 50 vessels, trawling as far afield as southern Africa and Newfoundland. Now there are just six.

From boom to bust, Rostock has experienced just how brutal is the collapse of a virtually mono-industrial city. The surrounding countryside, totally dependent on agriculture, is an even worse scene of devastation. Unemployment in many villages reaches over 80 per cent. The high expectations placed on reunification have fragmented into bitterness, frustration and envy.

Last week, they were hurled, with unparalleled brutality, at the terrified residents of block 18, Rostock-Lichtenhagen, the refugee hostel.

(Photograph omitted)

Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
ebooksAn unforgettable anthology of contemporary reportage
Rumer was diagnosed with bipolarity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder: 'I was convinced it was a misdiagnosis'
peopleHer debut album caused her post-traumatic stress - how will she cope as she releases her third record?
Arts and Entertainment
'New Tricks' star Dennis Waterman is departing from the show after he completes filming on two more episodes
tvOnly remaining original cast-member to leave long-running series
Life and Style
Couples have been having sex less in 2014, according to a new survey
Holly's review of Peterborough's Pizza Express quickly went viral on social media
Arts and Entertainment
musicBiographer Hunter Davies has collected nearly a hundred original manuscripts
A long jumper competes in the 80-to-84-year-old age division at the 2007 World Masters Championships
Life and Style
Walking tall: unlike some, Donatella Versace showed a strong and vibrant collection
fashionAlexander Fury on the staid Italian clothing industry
Arts and Entertainment
Gregory Porter learnt about his father’s voice at his funeral
Arts and Entertainment
tvHighs and lows of the cast's careers since 2004
Life and Style
Children at the Leytonstone branch of the Homeless Children's Aid and Adoption Society tuck into their harvest festival gifts, in October 1936
food + drinkThe harvest festival is back, but forget cans of tuna and packets of instant mash
Lewis Hamilton will start the Singapore Grand Prix from pole, with Nico Rosberg second and Daniel Ricciardo third
F1... for floodlit Singapore Grand Prix
Latest stories from i100
Have you tried new the Independent Digital Edition apps?
Independent Dating

By clicking 'Search' you
are agreeing to our
Terms of Use.

iJobs Job Widget
iJobs General

KS1 Primary Teacher

£100 - £150 per day: Randstad Education Leeds: Qualified KS1 Supply Teacher re...

KS2 Teaching Supply Wakefield

£140 - £160 per day: Randstad Education Leeds: Qualified KS2 Supply Teacher r...

Year 1/2 Teacher

£130 - £160 per day: Randstad Education Leeds: Qualified KS1 Teacher required,...

Primary Teachers Needed for Supply in Wakefield

£140 - £160 per annum: Randstad Education Leeds: Qualified KS1&2 Supply Te...

Day In a Page

Scottish referendum: The Yes vote was the love that dared speak its name, but it was not to be

Despite the result, this is the end of the status quo

Boyd Tonkin on the fall-out from the Scottish referendum
Manolo Blahnik: The high priest of heels talks flats, Englishness, and why he loves Mary Beard

Manolo Blahnik: Flats, Englishness, and Mary Beard

The shoe designer who has been dubbed 'the patron saint of the stiletto'
The Beatles biographer reveals exclusive original manuscripts of some of the best pop songs ever written

Scrambled eggs and LSD

Behind The Beatles' lyrics - thanks to Hunter Davis's original manuscript copies
'Normcore' fashion: Blending in is the new standing out in latest catwalk non-trend

'Normcore': Blending in is the new standing out

Just when fashion was in grave danger of running out of trends, it only went and invented the non-trend. Rebecca Gonsalves investigates
Dance’s new leading ladies fight back: How female vocalists are now writing their own hits

New leading ladies of dance fight back

How female vocalists are now writing their own hits
Mystery of the Ground Zero wedding photo

A shot in the dark

Mystery of the wedding photo from Ground Zero
His life, the universe and everything

His life, the universe and everything

New biography sheds light on comic genius of Douglas Adams
Save us from small screen superheroes

Save us from small screen superheroes

Shows like Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D are little more than marketing tools
Reach for the skies

Reach for the skies

From pools to football pitches, rooftop living is looking up
These are the 12 best hotel spas in the UK

12 best hotel spas in the UK

Some hotels go all out on facilities; others stand out for the sheer quality of treatments
These Iranian-controlled Shia militias used to specialise in killing American soldiers. Now they are fighting Isis, backed up by US airstrikes

Widespread fear of Isis is producing strange bedfellows

Iranian-controlled Shia militias that used to kill American soldiers are now fighting Isis, helped by US airstrikes
Topshop goes part Athena poster, part last spring Prada

Topshop goes part Athena poster, part last spring Prada

Shoppers don't come to Topshop for the unique
How to make a Lego masterpiece

How to make a Lego masterpiece

Toy breaks out of the nursery and heads for the gallery
Meet the ‘Endies’ – city dwellers who are too poor to have fun

Meet the ‘Endies’ – city dwellers who are too poor to have fun

Urbanites are cursed with an acronym pointing to Employed but No Disposable Income or Savings
Paisley’s decision to make peace with IRA enemies might remind the Arabs of Sadat

Ian Paisley’s decision to make peace with his IRA enemies

His Save Ulster from Sodomy campaign would surely have been supported by many a Sunni imam